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SMITHSONIAN 


INSTITUTION 


MUSEUM 
OF 
NATURAL 
HISTORY 








UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


A Review of the Genus 
Cryptocephalus 
in America North of Mexico 


(Chrysomelidae: Coleoptera) 


RICHARD E. WHITE 


Systematic Entomology Laboratory 
USDA, U.S. National Museum 


SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION PRESS 
CITY OF WASHINGTON 
1968 


Publications of the United States National Museum 


The scientific publications of the United States National Museum include 
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The Proceedings, begun in 1878, are intended for the publication, in 
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In the Bulletin series, the first of which was issued in 1875, appear longer, 
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This work forms number 290 of the Bulletin series. 


FRANK A. TAYLOR 


Director, United States National Museum 


U.S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE 
WASHINGTON : 1968 





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Introduction 


Leconte in 1880 published the last general treatment and key to the 
members of the genus Cryptocephalus Miiller. Since numerous 
changes were subsequently made and new species have been described, 
his paper is now out of date. This lack of an up-to-date key has greatly 
hindered recent work on the genus, and the need for a reexamination of 
the species and a new key is quite apparent. 

The present study began as a thorough revision of a partial, unpub- 
lished manuscript key by the late C. Schaeffer, but the need for a more 
complete treatment of the genus, including descriptions and illustra- 
tions to confirm doubtful determinations, led to its present form. A 
total of 71 species and 33 subspecies are included herein. Three species 
are newly synonymized, and three species are revalidated. Twelve new 
species and six new subspecies are described. 

This paper is based almost entirely on the specimens in the U.S. 
National Museum, a total of over 4,600 individuals; this series includes 
all but one (pallidicinctus Fall) of the North American species described 
previous to 1966. Numerous new state records and new host data have 
been compiled from these specimens. 

My thanks are offered to John Wilcox of the New York State 
Museum and to Burdette E. White of Perris, California, for assistance 
during the study and for the loan of specimens, to Howard Evans of 
the Museum of Comparative Zoology for examination of one of 
Leconte’s types, and to Hugh Leech of the California Academy of 
Sciences and to Charles Triplehorn of the Ohio State University for the 
loan of specimens. 

History—The taxonomic history of the genus Cryptocephalus for 
North America began in 1787 when Fabricius described two species; 
in 1798, he described another species that was subsequently renamed 
because it was a homonym. Jn 1801, Fabricius added one more species. 
Oliver (1808) described three species, all presently valid. Germar 
(1824) described a single species now placed in Cryptocephalus. Say 
(1824) described nine species, two that remain in Cryptocephalus (one 
is a subspecies), two that are now synonyms, and five that are now 
placed in other genera. Randall (1838) described a single species here 
ranked as a subspecies. Newman (1840) described eight species; two 
remain in Cryptocephalus, two are now ranked as synonyms, and the 
other four are in other genera. Melsheimer (1848) described 16 species, 
only two of which now remain in Cryptocephalus. Haldeman (1849) 

1 


2 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


described the subgenus Canthostethus and twelve species that he placed 
in Cryptocephalus; four are now synonyms, and eight are accepted as 
valid. Suffrian (1852a) added four names to the list; three are now 
valid, and one is a synonym. Also, Suffrian (1852b) later added six 
names, two that are synonyms and four that are now valid. Then in 
1858 he contributed three more names; two are presently valid and one 
now a synonym. Leconte (1859a and 1859b) described two new 
species, both of which are presently accepted. Crotch (1874) described 
CO. nigerrimus, now ranked as a subspecies. Leconte (1880) presented 
a key to the North American species of Cryptocephalus known to him 
and described eight species; one is herein synonymized, and the other 
seven are accepted as valid. Jacoby (1880) described a single species 
that is now a part of the North American fauna. Casey (1884) added 
a single name to the list, but this is now a synonym. Linell (1897) 
described a presently valid species. Schaeffer (1904), in the first of a 
series of papers including members of the genus, described two species 
that are presently valid. In 1906, he added four new species. Blatchley 
(1913) described sanfordi, presently a synonym of luteolus Newman. 
Clavareau (1913) changed two of the names accepted at that time, and 
one remains in use. Schaeffer (1920) described three additional species, 
all from the southwest. Blatchley (1923) presented notes on this genus 
in which he correctly validated two names previously ranked as 
synonyms and synonymized one name. Fall (1932) described five new 
species in the genus; four remain unaltered; one, having been synony- 
mized, is herein revalidated as a subspecies. Schaeffer (1933) described 
three new species and two new subspecies; in 1934 (in the last of his 
papers on this genus) he described three new species and two new 
subspecies in addition to contributing taxonomic notes. In 1937, 
Burdette E. White described one new species and two new subspecies. 

Brotogy—Little is known about the biotic associations of Crypto- 
cephalus species. The larvae are apparently all case bearers, and most 
are thought to feed on dead vegetable material on the surface of the 
soil. The adults feed on leaves, flowers, or fruits of plants, and the 
data on the labels of some specimens record them as feeding on 
economically important plants. A few species for which we have 
numerous records on adult habits apparently feed on a variety of 
plants. No North American species are recorded in the literature as 
important pests. 

MorrHoLtogy—The diagnostic characters of Cryptocephalus are as 
follows: Front edge of prosternum lateral to each coxa straight; 
claws simple; pronotum crenulate at its base. This combination of 
characters serves to distinguish the genus from all other North 
American genera of Cryptocephalinae. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 3 


Color and pattern: In what I consider to be the primitive species of 
the genus (the basalis group), the color is almost entirely black with 
red or orange markings. The head, body, appendages, pronotum, and 
much of the elytra are black, and usually there are red or orange basal 
and apical spots on each elytron. In some species (arizonensis group), 
the black of the elytra (and sometimes the pronotum) has a shining 
bluish or greenish luster. In these species, the pronotum and ventral 
surfaces are either black or orange. 

In most species, the usual body color can best be described as creamy 
yellow, and this frequently varies to light, medium, or deep orange. 
Infrequently true yellows are represented among the species. Past 
descriptions often refer to yellow markings, but comparison of the 
specimens with a color chart shows that this color is often creamy 
yellow or light orange rather than yellow. The creamy yellow or orange 
frequently forms the background on both the pronotum and elytra for 
dark markings of various sorts. Sometimes these dark markings pre- 
dominate and seem to form the background for light markings. In 
North American species, the dark markings vary from orange or red 
to brown shading to black. Occasionally the pronotum is nearly or 
quite unicolorous creamy yellow to orange or even red. In most species, 
the discal portion of the pronotum bears markings darker than the 
remainder that may be quite distinct to vague. The light (background) 
color most often appears on both sides of the disk as two oblique 
basal spots located on each side at the extreme lateral margin and at 
the extreme apical margin. This basic pattern (fig. 16), I believe, has 
served as the starting point for the other pronotal patterns as follows: 
Extension of the light basal spots produces the pattern of the pro- 
notum of cwneatus Fall (fig. 11), in which there are apparently three 
subequal, subparallel, longitudinal dark vittae; addition of a light 
median stripe to this pattern leads to the pattern found in the leuco- 
melas and amatus species groups (figs. 12 to 15). The elytral pattern, 
when present, varies greatly interspecifically. The pattern may be 
predominant light or dark markings and may consist of spots of 
transverse undulate (rarely straight) bands, or longitudinal dark 
vittae, or of median vittae and lateral spots, or may be irregular. 
In a few species, the elytra bear vague markings, only a humeral spot, 
or no distinct markings. Infrequently, the entire body is unicolorous 
yellowish or light orange. The dark elytral markings vary from dis- 
tinct and sharply delimited to indistinct or obsolete. 

Pubescence: The ventral surface, appendages, and pygidium of all 
species are more or less pubescent. The pubescence varies in density 
from the thick, whitish pubescence of pubiventris Schaeffer to the 
short and sparse pubescence of cerinus B. E. White. Only four species 


4 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


bear distinct pubescence on the dorsal surface. The species basalis 
Suffrian, mucoreus Leconte, and lunatus, new species, have pubescence 
on both the pronotum and elytra; pubicollis Linell has pubescence 
only on the pronotum. The pubescence of the dorsal surface is rather 
short and not dense; it somewhat obscures the surface. 

Shape: All the species are more or less compact, cylindrical, and 
blunt on each end, and there is no great variation in the general shape. 
The most elongate species is atrofasciatus Jacoby, up to 2.0 times as 
long as wide. Most species range from 1.6 to 1.8 times as long as wide. 
In the great majority of the species, the pronotal profile is more or 
less evenly rounded from front to back. In only two species (gibbicollis 
Haldeman and awulicus Haldeman), the pronotum is slightly to 
distinctly bulging at its center, and the outline of the pronotum is 
thus more gibbous than usual. 

Head: The head can best be described as disklike; it is flat anteriorly 
and inserted into the thorax. When seen anteriorly, it is almost circular, 
and its frontal plane is nearly or quite parallel to that of the anterior 
margin of the prothorax. It fits tightly into the anterior cavity of the 
thorax and is either concealed or nearly concealed from a dorsal view. 
The surface is alutaceous to smooth and usually bears rather large, 
distinct punctation. The vertex often bears a short coronal suture or 
slight depression and frequently is more darkly pigmented than the 
remainder of the head. The eyes form the lateral margins of the head 
and are elongate reniform when seen anteriorly; they do not bulge 
from the head surface (from a dorsal view they do bulge somewhat), 
and the facets are small. The eyes do not reach the mandibles at their 
lower margin, and they are distinctly separated at their upper margin. 
The clypeus is large and distinct, and its basal suture is usually 
distinct and is located between the bases of the antennae. The lateral 
margins are distinct and usually diverging so the clypeus is generally 
broader apically than basally. The apical margin of the clypeus (the 
point of insertion of the labrum) is inwardly arcuate and sometimes 
bears pubescence. The labrum is rather broadly tab-shaped, generally 
broader than long, and has rounded corners. It frequently bears a 
transverse row of anteriorly directed hairs before the apex. The 
maxillary palpi are 3-segmented, short, and more or less stout; the 
labial palpi are 2-segmented and similar to the maxillary palpi in 
form. 

Antennae: Each antenna is inserted at a basal corner of the clypeus; 
the points of insertion are separated by about the length of the first 
antennal segment and are distant from the eyes by about the hori- 
zontal diameter of an eye or a little less. The antennae are 11-seg- 
mented, are generally over one-half to nearly as long as the body, and 
are longer in the male than in the female. The first segment is the 











CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 5 


stoutest and among the longest ; the second is the shortest. The apical 
five or six segments are triangular and elongate and longer and 
broader than the intermediate segments; each apical segment is often 
about the length of the basal segment. The terminal segments are 
generally darker in color and more pubescent than the others. 

Pronotum: The surface of the pronotum nearly always bears two 
sizes of punctures. The smaller punctures are often detectable only 
under higher powers of a microscope and may be absent or obscured 
by the alutaceous surface of the pronotum. The larger punctures vary 
widely in both size and density: they may be just distinguishable from 
the small punctures or large and coarse. The pronotum is most often 
nearly evenly rounded throughout and resembles a segment of a 
sphere. In two species (gibbicollis and aulicus), it is distinctly bulging 
medially. This shape is present to a lesser extent in other species. In a 
few species, the pronotum is not evenly rounded but is much flatter in 
profile than usual, for example, lewcomelas Suffrian. The lateral margin 
is sharp and distinctly raised and meets the anterior margin at nearly 
a right angle to form a sharp, posteriorly directed point at its hind 
angle. The pronotum posteriorly is not margined and is closely applied 
to the elytra. The posterior edge of the pronotum bears numerous fine 
teeth that are normally concealed when the elytra and pronotum are 
close together, but usually the first few at each side are visible. 

Scutellum: The scutellum is tongue-shaped and bears a distinct 
notch at the base. It does not lie flat, is nearly always higher apically, 
and extends above the surrounding elytra. 

Elytra: The chief surface features of the elytra are the punctures. 
These nearly always form distinct rows and vary greatly in both size 
and density. In all species, the punctures form a scutellar and a mar- 
ginal row of punctures (fig. 1). Also, in nearly all species, the remaining 
punctures form seven, eight, or nine rows (striae). Most often two or 
three rows at the side are crowded, confused, intertwined, or inter- 
rupted, and infrequently all the rows are distinct and even throughout. 
In a few cases, the lateral rows are distinct and even but have an 
additional short series of punctures behind the humerus. The rows are 
nearly always faintly to distinctly finer apically, and the combined 
first and second numbered rows and the last numbered row are 
usually distinct and clearly united at the apex (fig. 2). In some species, 
the punctures at the apex are confused, and the combined first and 
second rows and the last row are totally obscured in this area (fig. 3). 
When there are nine rows (this, I believe, is a primitive condition), 
the following unite at the apex: the second and ninth, the third and 
fourth, the fifth and sixth, and the seventh and eighth. The elytral 
punctures are largest and sparsest in cribripennis Leconte; in most 
species, the punctures are distinctly smaller and denser. A sinuous 


6 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


epipleuron is present at the basal half of the elytra. The humerus is 
quite evident in nearly all species, and there is a tendency in some 
toward convexity of the elytral intervals, usually most evident at the 
side of the elytra. 

Thoracic sternites: In all species, the anterior margin of the 
prosternum lateral to each coxa is straight from a side view and 
evenly rounded from an anterior view. The anterior margin of the 
prosternum between the coxae is usually produced into a lobe or spine 
but is unmodified in some. A lobe, when present, generally points 
anteriorly, or diagonally downward; spines generally point downward. 
The median portion of the prosternum is flat, slightly concave, or 
even convex. The posterior margin on each side behind the coxae is 
broadly emarginate, and each side is produced posteriorly into a more 
or less distinct, stout, pointed lobe. The coxae are inserted at about 
the middle of the prosternum and are separated by about their diam- 
eter or a little less. The mesosternum is quite short and partially 
overlaid by the prosternal processes; the visible portion is often nearly 
quadrate. The metasternum is distinctly wider than long and bears a 
longitudinal, median groove or depression. The metasternum is 
narrowest between the insertions of the second and third pair of legs 
and broadest at its side. The metepisternum is triangular and broadest 
anteriorly; it is generally rather coarsely sculptured and more pu- 
bescent than the rest of the ventral surface. The metepimeron is much 
reduced. 

Abdomen: The abdomen consists of five dissimilar segments; all 
sutures except the fourth (usually), are distinct and straight. The 
first segment is the largest and at its center is usually nearly as long 
as the others combined. The second and third segments are subequal 
and shorter than the others; they are nearly parallel side to side or 
are wider laterally. The suture of the fourth segment lies at an angle 
to the others, and the segment is visible as a narrow triangle on each 
side or is narrowly visible at the middle and more broadly so on each 
side. The fifth segment is about half the length of the first, and the 
apical margin is broadly arcuate. At its center, the fifth segment bears 
a more or less broad deep pit (female) or is simple (male). The 
pygidium is quite large in all species; it is usually coarsely punctate 
and in some is more or less distinctly, longitudinally carinate at the 
center. 

Legs: The first and second pairs of coxae are more or less globular, 
and the third pair is transversely oval. The trochanters are interstitial 
and somewhat triangular; the femora are stout and broadest at about 
their middle. The tibiae are a little longer than the femora, are broadest 
apically, and lack spines. Hach tarsus is about two-thirds the length 
of a tibia, and its first three segments bear dense pads of pubescence 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 4 


beneath; the third segment is bilobed. The last segment is rather broad 
apically, and the claws are divergent and simple. 

Sexual characters: The most reliable character for distinguishing the 
sexes is the form of the fifth abdominal segment. In all females, this 
segment bears a distinct, deep depression at the center. The depression 
is nearly always broad and sharply margined anteriorly; there is often 
a rather long series of hairs arising from the anterior margin of the 
depression. In striatulus Leconte, this depression is less developed than 
usual but is still quite distinct. The fifth abdominal segment of the 
male at its center is convex to flat or even slightly depressed. Also, 
there are often sexual differences in the development of the anterior 
margin of the prosternum. When these occur, the male tends to bear a 
spine, and the female bears a lobe. Sometimes both sexes bear a lobe 
but that of the male is more pointed than that of the female. Ina few 
species, there are distinct to barely detectable sexual differences in 
the color or color pattern; also, in some species, males are smaller than 
females. The color and size differences can sometimes be used for rapid 
sexing of specimens. In mutabdilis Melsheimer and insertus Haldeman, 
nearly all males can be distinguished from females on the basis of these 
characters. In mutabilis, small individuals with the black markings 
are invariably males, and large individuals with the dark reddish 
markings are females. In insertus, the males are generally smaller and 
have more complete dark markings than the females. In both venustus 
simplex Haldeman and v. ornatulus Clavareau, the color patterns of 
the sexes are quite distinct. Unfortunately, the males of both these (I 
believe) are identical to the males of v. venustus F. In some species 
that show a distinct difference in the sizes of the sexes, there may be 
little or no overlap in length, but this has not been explored thoroughly. 

Genitalia: The male genitalia of selected species have been extracted, 
cleared in KOH, and illustrated (figs. 112-140). Included are new 
species, their nearest relative, many of the new subspecies, and at least 
one member of species groups not represented by any of the former. 
Representatives of different species groups can often be distinguished 
on the basis of external appearance of these parts, but the genitalia of 
related species usually do not offer useful external characters. Once 
the genitalia are cleared, the internal processes become visible, and 
these offer characters useful in distinguishing species. I have found 
generally that the subspecies of a species show little or no differences 
in the internal and external form of the parts; for example, the geni- 
talia of the subspecies of venustus are essentially identical; the same 1s 
true of the subspecies of notatus F. = 

Notes on the important findings resulting from the genitalic work 
are included under the appropriate species. The illustrative technique 
used to portray the genitalia (Coquille board) has been found ideal for 


8 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


this purpose. It allows the degree of pigmentation of the parts to be 
shown, which is impossible to do with a simple line drawing. Female 
genitalia have not been examined. 

Species Groups—The following groups were formulated without 
reference to the species groups advanced by Suffrian (1858, p. 345). 
The groups that J here recognize and the basis for distinguishing 
these groups are somewhat similar to those of Suffrian. Primarily, 1 
have depended on similarities in the elytral striae and the pronotal 
and elytral color pattern for grouping species. The characters pre- 
sented as typical of or similar within the species of each group are 
briefly described, but no attempt has been made to make the charac- 
ters that are discussed directly comparable between groups; in all 
cases, however, the elytral striae and color pattern are described. 
The groups are named on the basis of the species which most clearly 
shows the characters typical of the group. The characters listed are 
presented in approximate order of their reliability, the first character 
being the most distinctive for that particular group. Those least 
distinctive or consistent are at or near the end of the description. 

Basalis group: basalis Suffrian, binominis Newman, lunatus, new species, 
mucoreus Leconte, multisignatus Schaeffer, notatus F., pinicola Schaeffer, pubicol- 
lis Linell, pubiventris Schaeffer, quadruplex Newman. 

Head, pronotum, ventral surface, and appendages black or very 
dark; each elytron black with basal and apical spots red to orange, 
sometimes both joining at side, or sometimes with apical spot absent, 
infrequently with elytra entirely red to orange: usually with nine 
(sometimes eight) rows of small, distinct punctures, often with two 
or three rows at side confused; anterior margin of prosternum of male 
usually with a spine, sometimes with a pointed lobe, female usually 
with a lobe, sometimes simple; size generally medium to rather large. 

I regard this as the most primitive group of species of North 
American Cryptocephalus. The nine rows of punctures seem to me to 
be basic; reduction and modification of these rows, I believe, has led 
to the form of the punctures shown by other species groups. The 
elytral color pattern as shown by basalis seems to be the starting 
point from which the patterns of other species have developed. From 
the basalis group may have developed the querews group; compare 
the elytral pattern of multesignatus with that of atrofasciatus Jacoby. 

Quercus group: astralosus, new species, atrofasciatus Jacoby, quercus Schaeffer, 
umbonatus Schaeffer, vapidus, new species. 

Basic elytral pattern of dark markings of two or three transverse, 
undulate bands, sometimes absent or expanded; anterior margin of 
prosternum of both sexes produced into a broad lobe (sometimes 
pointed in male); with eight or nine rows of distinctly impressed 











CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 9 


punctures, two or three rows at side confused or entwined; pronotum 
predominantly dark, usually with two indistinct light basal oblique 
spots, and lateral and apical margins vaguely lighter; size medium to 
large. 

There is a similarity between the elytral pattern of atrofasciatus 
and that of triundulatus, new species, that may indicate a relation- 
ship between the members of this and the badius group. 

Badius group: badius Suffrian, cowaniae Schaeffer, contextus, new species, 
incertus Olivier, triundulatus, new species. 

Basic elytral pattern like that of triundulatus or badius, often some- 
what expanded or reduced; pronotum predominantly dark, nearly 
always with lateral and apical margins yellowish, usually with two 
yellowish, oblique basal spots; with seven or eight rows of punctures, 
often with two rows at side confused behind humerus or interrupted 
and joining one another; anterior margin of prosternum somewhat 
produced to evenly arcuate in both sexes; moderate in size. 

The elytral pattern of this group appears to me to have been pivotal 
in the development of the patterns of other groups of species. I find 
basic similarities that I interpret as indicating a relationship between 
this group and the following groups: guttulatus, cupressi, calidus (com- 
pare badius with the male of mutabilis), and trizonatus. 


Guttulatus group: guttulatellus Schaeffer, guitulatus Olivier. 


Each elytron with seven light (usually yellowish) spots on a darker 
background, spots subequal in size and generally separated by their 
diameters or less, number of complete spots from base to apex is 
2-2-2-1 (also a partial spot present anteriorly at side); pronotum 
usually with two vague, oblique, yellowish spots at base; with seven 
or eight rows of punctures, rows behind humerus confused or often 
with adjacent rows interrupted and joining; size small to medium. 

The pattern of this group is, I believe, clearly a modification of that 
of the preceding group. Some specimens of cowaniae almost exactly 
match the disposition of the spots at the apical two-thirds of the 
elytra in the guttulatus group. If the typical pattern of cowaniae is 
modified so that the light basal spots are expanded and the remaining 
spots enlarged and rounded, the pattern typical of this group results. 

Cupressit group: binotatus, new species, bivius Newman, castaneus Leconte, 
cupressi Schaeffer, disruptus, new species, duryi Schaeffer, egregius Schaeffer, 
leucomelas Suffrian, maccus, New species, pseudomaccus, new species, texanus 
Schaeffer, virginiensis, new species. 

Pronotum with four black to red, longitudinal, nearly parallel mark- 
ings, sometimes running together or completely joined, rarely absent. 
Elytra with basic pattern of dark markings as follows: two large or 
medium discal spots, two usually medium lateral spots, two medium 


10 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


or small apical spots, markings frequently reduced or modified, infre- 
quently absent. Background color of dorsal surface yellowish to orange; 
usually with seven or eight rows of punctures, two or three rows at 
side usually confused, infrequently with punctures not forming distinct 
rows, punctures often larger and/or sparser than usual; anterior margin 
of prosternum of male usually with a pointed lobe, that of female often 
with a lobe; size moderate to rather large. 

The species duryi and binotatus are atypical but are nearer to the 
Cupressi group than any other. 

Calidus group: albicans Haldeman, aulicus Haldeman, bispinus Suffrian, calidus 
Suffrian, gibbicollis Haldeman, insertus Haldeman, mutabilis Melsheimer. 

Basic elytral pattern of dark (usually black) markings as follows: 
from base of second, third, and fourth intervals to apex of second, 
and on most to all of sixth, seventh, and eighth intervals, pattern 
often reduced; pronotum predominantly dark, usually with more 
or less vague, oblique light spots at base; with eight, sometimes 
apparently nine rows of punctures, usually sixth and seventh rows 
confused, punctures generally smaller, less distinctly impressed than 
usual; anterior margin of prosternum evenly arcuate in both sexes, 
infrequently lobed; size moderate to large. 

At first glance, the dark elytral pattern of mutabilis would appear 
to have little relation to the basic pattern of this group; however, 
in certain specimens of insertus with reduced lateral vittae and ex- 
panded inner vittae, the resulting pattern almost exactly matches 
that of many specimens of mutabilis. In typical specimens of mutabilis, 
the outer vittae are reduced to spots, and the inner are reduced to 
two spots each basally but rather expanded before their apices. 

The calidus group is closely allied to the following, and the two 
could even be united due to the similarity of the basic elytral patterns. 


Venustus group: venustus Fabricius, obsoletus Germar. 


Anterior margin of prosternum of male with a stout spine, that 
of female with a V-shaped lobe; pronotum predominantly dark, usually 
with two vague, oblique, light spots at base; each elytron usually, 
with dark markings from base of second, third, and fourth intervals 
to apex of second, and on all of sixth, seventh, and eighth intervals; 
markings may be expanded or reduced; with nine, sometimes ap- 
parently eight, rows of punctures, often with two or three rows at 
side confused, reduced, or crowded; punctures generally smaller 
than usual or more distinctly impressed than usual. 

Cuneatus group: cuneatus Fall, trivittatus Olivier. 


Pronotum with three broad, longitudinal, reddish markings; each 
elytron at suture and sixth and seventh intervals reddish to black; 




















CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 11 


with eight rows of punctures, usually two rows at side confused, 
punctures sometimes finer than usual; ground color of dorsal surface 
yellowish to orange; anterior margin of prosternum in both sexes 
evenly arcuate. 

Tinctus group: implacidus, new species, lateritius Newman, ochraceus Fall, 
schreibersii Suffrian, striatulus Leconte, tinctus Leconte. 

Pronotal punctures large and deep to longitudinally elongate and 
producing a furrowed appearance; punctures at elytral apex 
sometimes regular, but most often confused; elytral color pattern, 
when present, consisting of three dark, transverse, indistinct, undulate 
bands; usually with nine rows of small distinct punctures, sometimes 
none confused, sometimes with two or three rows at side confused; 
anterior margin of prosternum of male usually lobed, often lobed 
and pointed, that of female evenly arcuate to somewhat lobed; 
small to moderate in size. 

There may be a relationship between insertus of the calidus group 
and the members of this group. 

Arizonensis group: arizonensis Schaeffer, nanus Fabricius, sanguinicollis 
Suffrian, pallidicinctus Fall. 

Pronotum red or orange (except black in sanguinicollis nigerrimus 
Crotch) and elytra usually black, sometimes very dark with bluish 
or greenish luster and occasionally with basal portion of elytra at side 
yellowish or lighter than remainder; elytra with seven, eight, or nine 
rows of punctures, often with rows six and seven confused; anterior 
margin of prosternum of male produced into a lobe, that of female 
more or less produced. 

I have seen no specimens of pallidicinctus, but by its description it 
is clearly a member of this group. 


Amatus group: amatus Haldeman, merus Fall. 


Basic elytral pattern consisting of dark markings on sutural, first, 
third, and fifth to last intervals; pronotum predominantly dark, 
usually with a median and two lateral, longitudinal dark markings, 
lateral and apical margins narrowly lighter; with eight rows of fine, 
distinct punctures, two or three rows at side confused or entwined; 
male with anterior margin of prosternum lobed and with a short, 
sharp, vertical spine just behind anterior margin or nearly half way 
back on prosternum, female with anterior margin lobed but with no 
spine; size moderate. 

Fall (1932, p. 23) described the prosternal spine of merus as a 
unique structure; in comparison with amatus the spine is unique 
only in its position. 


12 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Snow? group: cribripennis Leconte, simulans Schaeffer, snowi Schaeffer. 


With seven rows of punctures and an incomplete row between 
fifth and sixth rows, punctures often large and sparse; basic elytral 
dark markings consisting of vittae on intervals two, four, and six 
(latter formed of two united intervals); anterior margin of prosternum 
of both sexes produced into a broad, often pointed lobe; pronotum 
predominantly dark, with oblique, basal, yellowish markings, lateral 
and apical markings yellowish; size large. 

Confluentus group: alternans Suffrian, brunneovittatus Schaeffer, cerinus B. E. 
White, confluentus Say, defectus Leconte, dorsatus, new species, fulguratus Leconte, 
luteolus Newman, pumilus Haldeman, spurcus Leconte. 

Basic elytral pattern of dark markings consisting of complete 
vittae on intervals two, four, and six (latter formed by union of two 
intervals) often with pattern modified or absent; with seven rows of 
fine, distinct punctures, usually also with a short series behind hu- 
merus; anterior margin of prosternum of male usually produced 
ventrally into a pointed lobe, sometimes evenly arcuate, that of 
female sometimes produced into a lobe, often evenly arcuate; pronotum 
often with disk dark and with a vague pattern; size small to medium. 

Specimens which differ in minor details of color and elytral puncta- 
tion may be distinguished within this group of species and subspecies. 
The taxa within the complex are so close and ill-defined that the 
arrangement advanced here can be considered only tentative. I have 
found it impossible to delimit to my satisfaction the apparently un- 
described taxa on the basis of external morphology alone and feel 
that a complete understanding of the interrelationships will probably 
have to await biological studies. Whether a given series of apparently 
similar individuals (including some described taxa) is to be considered 
a species or subspecies (and, if the latter, to which species it is allied) 
appears to be largely conjectural. Those taxa I have described are 
the ones most obviously distinct; others are not treated herein because 
of the difficulties. 

The only species not assigned to any of the above groups is ¢rt- 
zonatus Suffrian. I believe it properly belongs to a separate group that 
would include it and at least four other species from Central America 
with similar coloration. In the USNM collection, four and possibly 
five species are similar to trizonatus; of these, many have been deter- 
mined as trizonatus but are clearly distinct from it. 

ScHAEFFER’S TYPES—It is sometimes quite difficult to determine 
with certainty whether specimens in the USNM that have been 
accepted as Schaeffer cotypes or paratypes do actually represent types, 
or if‘certain specimens that have not been accepted as types should 
now be so labeled. Evidently all types of Cryptocephalus species and 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 13 


subspecies described by Schaeffer (except paratypes of snowi in 
Kansas University) are now in the U.S. National Museum; some of 
these were clearly designated on labels by Schaeffer as types, but some 
were not; others have been designated (apparently by Barber) as 
cotypes and, it would appear, occasionally in error. This situation is 
complicated by the incomplete type data appearing in Schaeffer’s 
original descriptions; rarely is the number of specimens given from 
which the species was described, and generally only a portion of the 
label data was published. In some cases, the label data as it appeared 
in print was altered from its original form or miscopied, and in some 
cases, even, more data were given than now appear on the labels. 

In general, the type designations adopted by Barber have been 
retained; changes have been made in these only when there was no 
doubt in my mind that an error had been made and that a change was 
warranted. I have selected lectotypes for those species for which a type 
has not previously been designated. 

TAXONOMIC CHARACTERS—The system of terminology employed 
here in naming and numbering the elytral striae and intervals requires 
explanation. All North American species possess a short series of 
punctures in the scutellar region that are called the scutellar stria 
(fig. 1); this does not extend beyond the middle of the elytra. The 
numbering of the striae begins with the next row of punctures (the 
first row of the apical half of the elytron) and continues to the side 
before the lateral margin. The regular series of punctures at the lateral 
margin is termed the marginal stria; this normally extends from the 
base to the apex of the elytra. The scutellar and marginal striae are 
referred to only by their names. Thus the inner and outer rows of 
punctures referred to in the key are the first and last rows of numbered 
striae. 

Counting of the rows of striae on an elytron should start immediately 
behind the middle of the elytron; this will automatically exclude the 





scutellar — A -— Pao sett 
gg a Sg Be ee Sl ond 
fc = spe ae pee 3rd 
Ae ae fT eee Meena eee ee ee ae 
sr = ee 5th \INTERVALS 
n ae Sie aa ene 
6th es cane os 
Tih 2 
marginal— 





Ficure 1.—Cryptocephalus cerinus cerinus B, E. White showing terminology used for 
elytral striae and intervals. 


813-144—68——-2 


14 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


scutellar stria and will avoid the short series of punctures present in 
some species behind the humerus. Also, in those species with more 
or less confused rows of punctures at the side of each elytron (this 
includes most of the species), there is a lesser tendency for confusion 
of the rows behind the middle of the elytron, and the rows in this 
region will often be easier to count. 

All intervals are named by the name or number of the stria immedi- 
ately following it. Thus the scutellar interval is between the median 
suture and the scutellar stria, and the first interval is between the 
scutellar stria and the first stria, and so on. 

In the following text when the punctures are described as being 
coarse, I mean that they are not sharply but broadly or irregularly 
impressed and thus impart a rather coarse texture to the surface. Note 
that the use of coarse does not refer to the size of the punctures; both 
small and large punctures can be and often are coarse. Coarse punc- 
tures disturb the surface reflection and alter the degree of smoothness 
of the surface; punctures that are not coarse but are sharply impressed 
do not or only slightly disturb the surface reflection or alter the degree 
of smoothness. 

The pronotal and elytral drawings, and full-figure illustrations 
(figs. 4-111) will be a great aid in arriving at a determination be- 
cause Many species can be recognized by the illustrations alone. 
Elytral drawings of all species are presented except for pallidicinctus 
and the new taxa herein described; full-figure illustrations are pro- 
vided for the latter (figs. 94-111). Many species exhibit small to great 
variation in color pattern. For the less variable species, I have illus- 
trated the elytra of specimens that are about midway between the 
extremes in pattern. For those species in which the color pattern is 
quite variable or in which the sexes differ in color pattern, two elytral 
drawings are given. All the figures from 2 to 111 are drawn to the 
same scale. The genitalia (figs. 112-140) are much magnified and are 
all drawn to the same scale. 

Numerous misspellings and incorrect citations of plant scientific 
names were found on specimen labels. These misspellings and errors 
are included in the data but are always in quotation marks to dis- 
tinguish them from correct spellings and names. 

The following key has been constructed to cover as many variations 
as feasible. Color-variable species frequently key out in two or three 
places. Even with this, the extreme examples of some species will not 
key properly; an attempt to provide for all variable forms would so 
complicate the key that it would impair rather than improve its 
usefulness. 








2(1). 


3(2). 


4(3). 


5(4). 


6(2). 


7(6). 


8(6). 


9(8). 


10(9). 


11(9). 


12(11). 


CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 15 


Key to the North American Species of Cryptocephalus 


Elytron black (some with metallic blue or green luster) and with a red 
to yellow basal marking and an apical spot (sometimes absent or 


connected with basal marking), rarely with additional aoe markings 
S20 BD) enw sk ay me ae eee 


Elytron not as above, usually light mae dane markings, ‘if pradoie 
inantly black (some with metallic blue or green) without spots (figs. 


LING EESTYS LSS FO Rae UE et ee Rar oR canines ea US is 
BEOUGUIM PUDESCEML «032. a uate, 2 Sesdaics Wie wine Gh Ode ae: 
EEOMOLUM Ob PUNESCENE, sc 0 a. .1_ © ie,Je Ws. « ne..c.01e ase 0 


Posterior margin of basal elytral red spot diagonally preiatt or She 
so (fig. 24); elytra lacking pubescence; Arizona . . pubicollis Linell 
Posterior margin of basal elytral red spot concave or convex (figs. 20 
and 21); elytra pubescent; Texas to Kansas to Kentucky... . 4 
Basal elytral red spot larger and with posterior margin convex (fig. 21); 
elytral punctures larger, distinct; Texas ..... basalis Suffrian 
Basal elytral red spot smaller and with posterior margin concave 
(figs. 20 and 106); elytral punctures smaller, less distinct; Texas to 
INAMISAS FANG KENCICK IV: cco: vies a Bees oy ss pe Sacstatet cece SE AS nae 
Basal elytral red spot broadly nce Stnne at center and at side 
extending past middle of elytra (fig. 20); pubescence of dorsal surface 
denser; Texas to Kansas and Kentucky . . . . mucoreus Leconte 
Basal elytral red spot neither clearly attaining suture nor at side extend- 
ing past middle of elytra (fig. 106); pubescence of dorsal surface finer; 
GRAS EBs oi on Sein ay (6c ah sc Rd nine Be SARC . lunatus, new species 
Basal spot attaining both scutellum and apical spot. . ..... 7 
Basal spot attaining either scutellum or apical spot, never both. . 8 
Basal and apical spots joining at sixth and seventh or eighth intervals 
(fig. 31); length 3.6 to 5.1 mm.; Canada to Texas to Utah. 
notatus sellatus Schaeffer 
Basal and apical spots joining at eighth or ninth and marginal intervals 
(fig. 32); length 5.0 to 6.8 mm.; Arizona. . . pubiventris Schaeffer 
Entire basal half of elytra red or only intervals one to four black at base 


(figs 27) Blorida. 53.5.5. . . . .  Dbinominis rufibasis Schaeffer 
Elytra and/or locality otherwise . . Staten aN cok Tae i Ot 
Basal spot attaining scutellum (figs. 30, 32) eohSigias tm Ber tae ee ene 
Basal spot not attaining scutellum ...... +--+ s+ + +s 11 
Pubescence of ventral surface longer, denser; i: 1 a 6. 2 mm.; Arizona 

(fig. 32) . es Sogee . . . . pubiventris Sehaefrer 
Pubescence of ena cies eres gperer: 3.6 to 5.5 mm.; eastern 

to central U.S. (fig. 30) . 3 =) Notatus caadrimacnlates Say 


Pronotum reddish at side; ef with spots in addition to basal and 
apical markings (fig. 28); Arizonas . .. . multisignatus Schaeffer 
Pronotum black throughout; elytra with only basal and apical markings; 
east U.S: tO-ATIZONG <°.6.06yien 6 ~ «5 sp .6t eer 4a all syebes re tebe 
Dorsal surface faintly bluish; ody 1. 8 fa 2.0 famed as long as wide; 
apical spot reduced to absent = 25); Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, 
Colorado... . . . . pinicola Schaeffer 
Dorsal surface oats ot phuieh:  pody i 6 to 1.8 times as long as 
wide; various localities; apical spot present . . 13 


16 


13(12). 


14(13). 


15(1). 


16(15). 


17(16). 


18(17). 


19(18). 


20(19). 


21(20). 


22(15). 


23 (22). 


24( 28). 


U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Basal spot at its apex attaining at least first interval and often suture 


(fig. 26); southeastern U.S... . . . binominis binominis Newman 
Basal spot at its apex rarely extending inward beyond third interval. 
14 


Basal spot with inner margin inclined away from suture at apex (fig. 
29); pronotum faintly bluish; length 3.3 to 4.8 mm.; body 1.6 to 
1.7 times as long as wide. ....... . notatus notatus F. 

Basal spot with inner margin straight or inclined toward suture at 
apex (figs. 22, 23); pronotum rarely bluish; length 2.9 to 4.0 mm.; 


body 1.7 to 1.8 times as long as wide. . . . quadruplex Newman 
Punctures at elytral apex confused and completely obscuring inner 
and outer rows of puncture (fig.3) ..... goals Wome 


Punctures at elytral apex not or but slightly ponineed. inner and 
outer rows of punctures always distinct and usually clearly meeting 
(Giz eZ) ieee piesa wae 

Pronotal disk Aereey fonetntreti Faeroe eos dene punc- 
tate, dark reddish with light margins (fig. 8). schreibersii Suffrian 

Pronotum coarsely to finely punctate throughout, color not as above. 

17 

Elytra unicolorous, with no dark markings (fig. 38); pronotum alu- 
taceous; length 2.0 to 2.4 mm.; northeastern states to Iowa. 

striatulus Leconte 

Elytra with vague to distinct dark markings or pigmented striae; 
pronotum not alutaceous; wea 2.7 to 5.1 mm.; various locali- 
GIES he os BP ERS EBES 

Dark marking or elven Ge 70) a broad lene sna stripe, some- 
times branched; pronotal punctures small to moderate. 

incertus Olivier 

Dark marking of elytron transverse, forming no pattern, or vague, or 
of pigmented striae; pronotal punctures large, coarse . .... 19 

Elytral punctures largely confused, forming irregular or double rows 
Wao valmoyny (Gale, GD) 5 4G a 6c ... . . .lateritius Newman 

Elytral punctures forming clearly deaued rows, fifth, sixth, or seventh 
rows sometimes confused ..... tings tease 

Dark elytral markings tending to form fneee pron once bands 
(fig. 37); length 2.8 to 4.5 mm.; New York to Florida to Kansas. 

tinctus Leconte 

Dark elytral markings much reduced, not as above; length 4.4 to 5.1 


mm.: Florida to Texas’ - .. ae oti Vey Se 
Rows six and seven of elytral erarie iaeeely to completely confused 
(figs 536) Rloridar. 3. 2 .. . . oOchraceus Fall 
Rows six and seven of elytral Pree anion to somewhat confused 
(figs. 3 and 104); Texas to Louisiana . . . .implacidus, new species 
Pronotum wholly black or dark brown . . . 2} elas 
Pronotum not as above, with distinct to vaeae e markings at least 
laterally or entirely light or reddish. . . . wastegate 


Elytra wholly black (fig. 42); length 3.5 to 4. 5 mm.; Monaro: 
sanguinicellis aeerimas Crotch 
Elytra not wholly black, length 4.0 to 6.5 mm.; Arizona, Florida . 24 
Small, 4.1 to 4.8 mm.; undersurface with short, rather sparse pubes- 
cence; Florida... .... . .. . . notatus fulvipennis Haldeman 














25(22). 


26(25). 


27 (26). 


28(26). 


29(28). 


30(29). 


31(25). 


32(31). 


33(31). 


34(33). 


35(34). 


36(34). 


37 (36). 


CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 17 


Larger, 5.0 to 6.3 mm.; undersurface with denser, moderately long, white 
pubescence; none . pubiventris Schaeffer 
Elytral disk largely to wholly, black: or ak brownish (some metallic 
blue or green), usually lateral margin partly or entirely yellowish . 26 
Elytra generally red or pale and with or without markings; when mostly 


black or brown with scattered pale spots or vittae . . . . ee pk 
Elytra at side yellow from base to apex; midwest to central states. . 27 
Elytra at side black, or yellow only at base ; Various localities. . . . 28 


Elytral disk entirely black (fig. 84). . . venustus cinctipennis Randall 
fly tral disk black with more or less distinct yellowish markings (fig. 85). 
venustus hamatus Melsheimer 
Elytra dark and distinctly metallic bluish or greenish; Arizona, Texas 
igg4d) ips ye ws . . . . arizonensis arizonensis Schaeffer 
Elytra black and shining, not bluish or greenish; various localities . 29 
Legs and ventral surface mostly to completely orange; length 2.8 to 
3.5 mm.; southeastern U.S. to Arkansas (fig. 44). . . .nanus F. 
Legs and ventral surface black; length 3.0 to 4.9 mm.; Rocky Mt. 
states... oma heer <2 ee 
Head black; prouerar red elvina ingle (ig. ie 
Sanguinicollis sanguinicollis Suffrian 
Head black with yellow markings; pronotum red with apex yellowish, 
base dark; elytra black with yellow margin. . pallidicinctus Fall 
Pronotum with a broad, median, longitudinal dark spot bordered each 
side by generally distinct yellow stripes (figs.10,11) . .... . 32 
Pronotum not as above... . AOS 
Smaller, about 3.3 to 4.3 mm.; proreeal punetation iene Bee dense 
and coarse (fig. 10); serial punctures of elytra usually larger and 
coarse (fig. 50); eastern U.S: . . . . . . . . trivittatus Olivier 
Larger, 4.0 to 5.1 mm.; Pronaiel paeiient small and fine (fig. 11); 
serial punctures of elytra usually smaller, feebly impressed (fig. 51); 


Florida, Georgia... . . . cuneatus Fall 
Pronotal medial line none peedered by longitudinal dark stripes (figs. 
SCOR) ev eecu te ps ; tly ee ang Sot tetot 
Pronotal coloring never as abocee: arslitdrn td) 2A ZS RAD 
Elytral punctures pigmented, not or obscurely arranged in rows (figs. 
BAR OM)icry cite beutaly = OS tz, eon oe 
Elytral punctures nec ra fpiementedh eenoed in more or less 
regularrows . . . S scenes 


Elytral punctures lager (Ge. 54); foe pronotal dark stripes complete, 
lateral two arcuate to nearly straight (fig. 14); Texas . duryi Schaeffer 
Elytral punctures smaller (fig. 97); four pronotal dark stripes reduced 
(fig. 13) to absent; California, Arizona . . . binotatus, new species 
Pronotum with coarse, pigmented punctures, densest anteriorly and at 
side (fig. 9); Texas, Arizona. ........ . ..merus Fall 
Pronotum with fine punctures or with coarse, not pigmented 
punctures .. . ee aeteacas Os 
Elytral punctures conned feneely ‘6 fae eee deters markings, small 
and sparse on yellow regions; dark markings of each elytron consisting 
of a basal, transverse, undulate band, a subhumeral spot, two sub- 
median spots, and two apical spots (fig. 100); Colorado. 
disruptus, new species 
Neither punctures nor markings as above; various localities . . . . 38 


18 


38(37). 


39(38). 


40(39). 


41(38). 


42(41). 


43 (42). 


44(41). 


45(44). 


46 (45). 


47(45). 


48 (47). 


U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Intervals two and four yellow SS ae devoid of dark pigment 
(Ggs9 and: 40). s-s2 eee a ace OR Tioeee ee er cir ette ot . 39 
Intervals two and four dark, at pasta in fone Sh aN meee ates) Mig Wee mea 
First elytral interval lacking dark markings or only vaguely darkened 
near suture (fig. 39); Texas, New Mexico . amatus amatus Haldeman 
First elytral interval dark in part or throughout; Colorado, New 
Mexico, Wyoming . . oe aD 
Vitta on third interval broadly inestrapted (fig. 95);  ronenim red with 
only an indistinct median light stripe on disk (fig. 6). 
amatus fractilineatus, new subspecies 
Vitta on third interval not or narrowly interrupted (fig. 40); pronotum 
red or black with median stripe, two basal oblique spots and lateral 
margins yellow, oblique spots sometimes expanded or reduced (fig. 7). 
amatus apicedens Fall 
Pronotum laterally with a dark red to black spot, sometimes joining 
adjacent vitta (figs. 4 and 5); southeastern U.S. to Arizona. . . 42 
Pronotum laterally lacking a dark spot; various localities. . . . . 44 
Elytra with a common, submedian, transverse, undulating band 
attaining lateral margin (fig. 105); pronotal spot larger, about half 
size of an eye, usually joining adjacent vitta (fig. 5); Arizona. 
maccus, new species 
Elytral markings not as above; pronotal spot smaller, not joining 


adjacent vitta (fig. 4); Florida to Arizona. ..... wee ae 
Dark markings of dorsal surface black, more extensive (fig. 62); length 
4.3 to 6.4 mm.; Florida to Texas: 2°." 5. . . . bivius Newman 


Dark markings of dorsal surface bright red to dull red, less extensive 
(fig. 108); length 3.9 to 4.3 mm.; Arizona. 
pseudomaccus, new species 
Elytra at apical half with only two apical spots and a small (to absent) 
common sutural spot (fig. 103); Minnesota. 
leucomelas trisignatus, new subspecies 
Elytra at apical half with more extensive markings than above; locality 
TOROS MONE 6G Gb 8 ob co G6 Oo wo oo o d40 9 S\a c . 45 
Elytron with three pair ao enone (rarely touehine) , basal pair largest 
(figs. 55 and 61) . PS Rae Coop cee vate asks rams a) era 
Elytron not as above, oa apoteed: ican discal two spots largest, often 
confluent (figs: 56705740 Gk D9) neces ee ene euler sete s snot AT 
Pronotum with outer dark stripe on each ae clearly wider than inner; 
inner of basal elytral spots broadly attaining suture (fig. 55); 
TOWsiaa DLs, LG en yee eee . . . cupressi Schaeffer 
Pronotum with puted dank amie on each side about equal in width to 
inner stripe; inner of basal elytral spots not or narrowly touching 
suture (fig. 61); Texas... . . . ... . . texanus Schaeffer 
Basal transverse band of elytra netainiae lateral margin and joining 
second elytral band at suture (fig. 59); Colorado. 
leucomelas vitticollis Leconte 
Hither elytral markings or locality otherwise. . ..... - Sears 
Dark pronotal vittae and/or discal two spots of each elytron nearly 
always confluent (figs. 12, 57); California, Arizona, New Mexico. 
castaneus Leconte 
Dark pronotal vittae and discal two spots of each elytron rarely touch- 
ing (figs. 15, 58); east U.S. to Utah and New Mexico. 
leucomelas leucomelas Suffrian 








| 
| 


49(33). 


50(49). 


51(50). 


52(51). 


53(52). 


54(52). 


55(54). 


56(55). 


57 (56). 


58(57). 


59(58). 


60(58). 


CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 19 


Pronotum pale, with large central and one or two small lateral dark 
spots on each side (fig. 17); each elytron with eight dark spots and 

a common sutural spot (fig. 60), discal spots sometimes joined. 
egregius Schaeffer 
Pronotum and/or elytra not as above eee eS ee atl ha 50 
Elytron pale with only a single dark spot on humeral callus or no 
distinct markings present (punctures may be pigmented) . . . .51 
Elytron with more or less distinct markings or dark with light spots . 65 
Pronotal disk densely, longitudinally furrowed, sides densely pune- 
tate’ (ig. 8) ‘eastern’ U.S) oF Pees 2 24 2 . Schreibersii Suffrian 
Pronotum not furrowed, evenly punctate; various localities . . . . 52 
Small, length about 2.0 to 2.7 mm.; scutellar stria of six to nine punc- 
UUREB Ire fattest Meth e o ree ae rat aa Cannan, Pete ROE ie Att: 
Larger, length 3.3 to 7.5 mm.; scutellar stria of 3 to 15 punc- 
LUNCH eter oe oui cita al ch seuee eran te tay teen Mie, SEL ay ee eS 54 
Elytron with nine entire rows of punctures, these and pronotal punc- 
tures larger (fig. 38); northeastern U.S. to Iowa . striatulus Leconte 
Elytron with seven entire rows of punctures, these and pronotal 
punctures smaller (fig. 69); Florida to Virginia . pumilus Haldeman 
Raised margin at side of elytra and bordering epipleuron black or 

dark brown throughout (fig. 101). 

gibbicollis decrescens, new subspecies 
Raised margin at side of elytra orange, yellow, or black only in part . 55 
Pronotal disk inflated, coarsely punctate throughout; length 6.0 to 


Mo mme high 7or Florida yr. 29 Fon. aulicus Haldeman 
Pronotum not inflated, evenly arcuate in outline; rarely coarsely 
punctate; length 3.4 to 6.0 mm.; various localities... .. . 56 


Elytral punctures larger, pigmented, and predominantly confused, 
forming distinct rows only at side, apex, and sometimes at base 
(fig. 97); pronotal punctures rather coarse . . binotatus, new species 

Elytral punctures not as above, forming distinct rows throughout; 
pronotal puncturesnotcoarse ....... ST es a5) 

Each elytron with nine rows of punctures, sixth, seventh, or eighth 
sometimes confused (if in doubt, count an incomplete series as a 


TOW) her eerie ee eee Se Site eal, weit s pm ee  ca eaters 
Each elytron with seven or eight entire rows of punctures, fifth, sixth, 
orseventhoftenconfused ........-+.e+.-. ge, as NE 
Ventral surface reddish and/or yellowish and clouded or margined 
with blackish to predominantly blackish . . . 2... +. + +99 
Ventral surface reddish or yellowish and without black . . . . . 60 


Length 4.1 to 5.8 mm.; punctures of adjacent striae separated by 
four or more times their diameters, striae less confused at side 
(fig. 88); New Hampshire to Virginia to Wisconsin. 

venustus simplex Haldeman 

Length 3.9 to 4.0 mm.; punctures of adjacent striae separated by about 
their diameters, striae more confused at side (fig. 96); Arizona. 

astralosus, new species 

More elongate, body 1.75 to 1.85 times as long as wide; dorsal surface 
distinctly shining (fig. 111); elytra generally with two vague, trans- 
verse bands; Arizona ....-+-+-+-++es vapidus, new species 

Less elongate, body 1.5 to 1.6 times as long as wide; dorsal surface 
(especially pronotum) less shining; with vague longitudinal bands or 
no markings; Massachusetts to Florida to Louisiana . 61 


20 


61(60). 


62(57). 


63 (62). 


64(63). 


65(50). 


66(65). 


67(66). 


68(67). 


69(68). 


70(69). 


71(70). 


72(70). 


U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Larger, length 4.3 to 6.0 mm.; prosternal spine in lateral view short, 
pointed, not parallel-sided; elytra usually vittate (fig. 78); Virginia 
to Florida to Louisiana. . . . . . . obsoletus obsoletus Germar 

Smaller, length 4.0 to 4.3 mm.; prosternal spine in lateral view elongate, 
nearly parallel-sided; elytra not or vaguely vittate (fig. 107); 
Massachusetts. . . . . . obsoletus indistinctus, new subspecies 

Fifth and sixth elytral striae confused and intertwined, striae usually 
darkly pigmented and strongly contrasting with yellow background 
(fig. 68); Arizona. .. . . . . . Uumbonatus Schaeffer 

Fifth and sixth elytral ee noe Coneuned or intertwined, striae pig- 
mented or not (figs. 91 and 93); various localities. . ..... 63 

Ventral surface, legs, head, and pronotum unicolorous, very dull reddish 
orange, elytra creamy yellow (fig. 99); elytron behind humerus with 
one or two punctures in addition to regular rows; Texas. 

dorsatus, new species 

Color not as above; elytron behind humerus with four to seven punctures 
in addition to regular rows; California to Texas. . ...... 64 

Dorsal surface light orange-yellow to orange, pronotum without dark 
markings (sometimes with minute speckling) ; striae finer (fig. 93). 

cerinus cerinus White 

Dorsal surface orange to clouded reddish orange, pronotum with darker 


markings; striae coarser (fig.91). . . . . spurcus spurcus Leconte 
Each elytron with at least one complete, dark, longitudinal stripe 
(sometimes vague) .. . aves 6 ad hao 
Elytral markings of peoples or aera d ct pate or markings 
transverse or irregular. ... . atk. ss hen nee 
Elytral vittae or markings errone a (arent poe araee lateral 
spots) confined to one interval or to a single stria. ...... 67 
Elytral vittae or markings broad, at least one at widest point including 
two or three intervals. .... WTS sch werunse tad 
Inner elytral vittae narrow, each ponenedl 5 a oaiecie stria (fig. 71); 
southeastern U.S. ..... ... . . albicans Haldeman 
Inner vittae broader, each pines an interval; various lo- 
Calitiesseae- see sins e 


Elytron with two Sale te or pees See (fig. 80); : Teens 
brunneovittatus Schaeffer 
Elytron with three dark ree outer two may be interrupted; various 


localities . . . ae sc, AES 
Second vitta ieoearecad once near ane, coed isan twice 
(fig. 68); Texas to Arizona ..... ... . .snowi Schaeffer 
Vittae not as above; various localities. . .. Go ie iO) 
Dark markings aa pronotum black, distines: oe sgunesnee: 
narrowly reddish .... Hs SNL ER 
Dark markings of pronotum orange, =| or apeoaens ate to cinch 
infrequently black in part .... a8 Aides ee Bow va ceils 


Background color of elytra light orange ae 92). 
spurcus vandykei White 
Background color of elytra creamy yellow (fig. 94). 
alternans jungovittatus, new subspecies 
Pronotum at side with a small, distinct, isolated dark spot; Fig. 47. 
simulans simulans Schaeffer 
Pronotum. at:side. without a:dark spot...4cJic.e cisions os 2 te 

















73(72). 


74(73). 


75(74). 


76(75). 


77 (66). 


78(77). 


79(78). 


80(77). 


81(80). 


82(81). 


83 (82). 


CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 21 


Second and third elytral vittae distinct and each interrupted twice 
(fig vAG)e Texas. 0 S124 . . . .Simulans conjungens Schaeffer 
Hlytral vittae absent, vague,< ornotasabove. ... cee ere 
Background color light orange to reddish orange, vittes rarely dis- 
tinct, usually reduced and vague, sometimes absent (fig. 91); Cali- 
forniay ee - . . .Spurcus spurcus Leconte 
Background poles of elvan ay yellow to light orange, vittae 
distinct, dark reddish to black; central states to California . . . .75 
Legs predominantly brownish or black (fig. 98). 
confluentus melanoscelus, new subspecies 
Legs predominantly yellowish or reddish . . ..........76 
Pronotum predominantly to entirely dark orange fa reddish, usually 
with yellowish only in two basal spots and at lateral and apical 
margins, with dark reddish to black lateral to each light basal spot 
(fig. 16); central states to Canada to California (fig. 90.) 
confluentus confluentus Say 
Pronotum predominantly light orange, basally at each side and on 
disk with vague reddish markings (fig. 89); Nevada. 
cerinus nevadensis White 
Anterior margin of prosternum with a stout spine or distinet V-shaped 


lobe rary Ww Rts s\cok oe ethics 
Anterior margin of Oren apie eae arenes: or with a 
broadly rounded or slightly pointed lobe . .. . she! Gee 


Elytron with inner of two vittae dark and distinct, Sates vitta ea 
reduced, represented by one, two, or three spots; females (fig. 87). 
venustus ornatulus Clavareau 
Elytron with both vittae distinct and complete or both complete but 
not distinct; males and females. . . . Jee §5t eD 
Elytral vittae quite distinct, black, rarely ane readine (fig. 86); striae 
finer, discal intervals flat; discal pronotal punctures round, separated 
on an average by two or more times their diameters. 
venustus venustus F. 
Elytral vittae much less distinct, light to dark reddish, rarely partly 
black (fig. 78); striae more distinct, discal intervals convex; discal 
pronotal punctures separated on an average by about their diameters, 
tending to become longitudinally elongate. 
ebscletus obsoletus Germar 
Elytral epipleuron all or mostly black, lateral raised margin dark or 
black; pronotum gibbous to strongly gibbous; Fig. 79. 
gibbicollis gibbicollis Haldeman 
Elytral epipleuron black in part, lateral raised margin yellow to orange; 
pronotum normal to somewhat gibbous . ‘ 81 
Averaging larger, length 5.4 to 6.7 mm.; Blorida, Alanaraa, Georgia, 
and Texas; females; Fig. 72.....--.- bispinus Suffrian 
Averaging smaller, length 4.0 to 5.7 mm.; various localities; males and 
females 82 
Outer elytral vith saterrupiedio: once, tee ice, or neg ale been sometimes 


confluent with inner vitta (fig. 74) ... . - - insertus Haldeman 
Outer elytral vitta complete . BF Modal ee Ae 83 
Occurring in Texas; males (fig. 72) ....- ships Suffrian 


Occurring in eastern U.S.; males and females (fig. 73). calidus Suffrian 


22 


84(65). 


85(84). 


86(84). 


87(86). 


88 (87). 


89(88). 


90(89). 


91(90). 


92(91). 


93 (92). 


94(93). 


95(94). 


U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Each elytron with seven or eight subequal, approximately oval light 
spots separated by their diamaters or less (figs. 52, 53); pronotal 


markings vague or absent. .... Sec driemenseecste 
Elytral pattern not as above; preeeuien AS ah distinct 
markings ... 2.) SOD. 
Ventral surface and prosatura Each: leaeth 3. 8 oS 5. 9 mm.; eastern 
to central states (fig. 53) . ache ie peitnne vattulatna Olivier 
Ventral surface and pronotum yellowish Pee 2.6 to 3.0 mm.; Texas; 
Big O26 ees ete . . . . guttulatellus Bcnnewer 


Elytral punctures fare. Sennen oe on yellow background not or 
scarcely arranged in rows (fig. 64); southern Texas. 
cribripennis Leconte 
Elytral punctures small, in distinct rows throughout. . .... . 87 
Elytra with two broad, transverse, dark reddish bands (fig. 19); pro- 
notum with one broad, dark reddish band; Texas. 
trizonatus Suffrian 
Elytral and pronotal pattern otherwise; various localities. . . . . 88 
Raised margin at side of elytra and bordering epipleuron dark brown 
or black throughout; Fig. 101. 
gibbicollis decrescens, new subspecies 
Raised margin at side of ae yellow, red, or orange throughout, rarely 
partly blackish. .. . ni iPAste lS, =rNleSe 
Elytron light, with only one ae fe ermal Anak oo (fig. 75); pronotal 
disk inflated, coarsely punctate; length 6.0 to 7.5 mm.; Florida. 
See Haldeman 
Elytral pattern otherwise; pronotum eS moderately gibbous; 
length 2.0 to 7.5 mm... . Bea ey ee OO 
Length 2.0 to 2.7 mm.; ground calon light orange) caronotal and elytral 
markings reddish I brown and more or less vague (fig. 69); with 
seven striae and a posthumeral series. . . . . pumilus Haldeman 
Length 2.8 to 7.5 mm.; markings otherwise; striae usually otherwise. 91 
Dark elytral markings longitudinal and only on alternate intervals, 
usually on intervals two, four, and six, sometimes on only two and 
four or four and six, or may also be on seven and eight (figs. 


89-92). Juana Hehe State 
Dark eyitl ranianes| on as iebage! eae transverse composed of 
spots, orirregular. ... Sshs VSlweres 


With vague vittae on ener als ron faim nea six ' (Gig. 91); length 4.0 
to 6.0 mm.; with seven striae and a short series of punctures behind 
humerus; @ahigrai mile ve . . . spurcus spurcus Leconte 

Hither ae length, striae, or fopelites hotjasjabove:-lprels 40-0. ee 

Length 5.0 to 6.5 mm.; punctures behind humerus largely confused and 
of varying sizes (figs. ATtoj49) ie Shue ‘ ek hfe 

Length 2.8 to 4.6 mm.; punctures behind hanniacue nahh as above, quite 
regular in Senne cna and size. .. bes) tat Vee OO 

Pronotum at side lacking an isolated fens ove Tews (fig. 49). 

simulans conjungens Schaeffer 

Pronotum at side with an isolated dark spot; Arizona. . ... . 95 

Elytra with dark markings on suture and second interval vague to 
absent (fig. 48); pronotal spot distinctly darker than adjacent 
markings. .......... . . simulans eluticollis Schaeffer 























96(93). 


97(96). 


98(91). 


99 (98). 


100(99). 


101(100). 


102(100). 


103(102). 


104(103). 


CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 23 


Elytra with dark markings on suture and second interval distinct 
(fig. 47) ; pronotal spot somewhat or not darker than adjacent 
markings cose 2 6 © 6 ee « «© . Simulans simulans Schaeffer 

Fourth interval nearly parallel-sided throughout (fig. 80); with seven 
regular striae and no short series behind humerus; length 3.4 to 
4.66mm.............. . « brunneovittatus Schaeffer 

Fourth interval not parallel-sided, distinctly broadest before apex 
(figs. 65 and 66); with seven often sinuate striae and a short series 
behind humerus; length 2.8 to 3.3mm. ......... Scene 

Pronotum light red, elytra cream yellow with brown markings on 
second, fourth, and sixth intervals (fig. 66); Florida. 

luteolus Newman 

Pronotum and elytra cream yeilow to light orange, dark elytral mark- 

ings on fourth and sixth intervals (fig. 65); Texas 
defectus Leconte 

Pronotum black with lateral and much of apical margins light orange 
(fig. 109); each elytron with six paired black spots, inner basal spot 
obviously largest; Virginia. . ...... Virginiensis, new species 

MATIN ge NOLAStADOVE 4.5, Zine +. mraraclics (hl ae ove STE cote kaa Gk 99 

Dark discal markings of elytron attaining lateral margin just behind 
MEDEA Oe as Mee op 6 cog et Bic, cee pv ap Tee eosin + pceaaee . 100 

Dark discal markings of elytron not attaining lateral margin behind 
TMG S esttem cc a! we oS Me ie a OTE eS ah re ee eee ies 105 

Length 5.0 to 7.5 mm.; dark elytral markings of two or three transverse 
undulating bands (figs. 45 and 46);southwestern U.S... ... 101 

Length 3.7 to 5.0 mm.; dark elytral markings usually not of transverse 
bands “various localities = 7c) cs 4.0, ei see syeeresities =» LOZ 

Body about 1.8 times longer than wide; dark elytral pattern tending 
to form three transverse bands of orange, red, or black, variable in 
development (fig. 46); with seven or eight striae, usually five, six, 
An GmeSeVenes CONLUSCG usm siya) cn cine meinen s . . atrofasciatus Jacoby 

Body about 1.6 times longer than wide; dark elytral markings tending 
to form two transverse bands of orange or red (fig. 45); with nine 
striae, usually six, seven, and eight confused. . . quercus Schaeffer 

Elytron at base with dark markings broadly attaining lateral margin 
(fig. 82); pronotum lacking paired light spots at base; eastern to 
Centraleestatesivn. o- sac cteies sme sel polMort ons . badius Suffrian 

Elytron at base with dark markings not attaining lateral margin; 
pronotum usually with paired light spots at base; central states to 
PRCXASLAN GY ATIZONG cris. nc ep vel ce as area eol tee) ot Gane 103 

Pronotum unicolorous throughout or with margins vaguely lighter, 
never with light basal spots; dark elytral markings consisting of two 
or three narrow, orange, or red, more or less vague, often inter- 
rupted, transverse bands (fig. 67); Texas, Arkansas, Kansas. 

fulguratus Leconte 

Pronotum at side with distinct yellowish markings, these narrowly 
interrupted at middle, usually with paired yellow spots at base; dark 
elytral markings black, distinct (figs. 83 and 110); Arizona . - 104 

Dark elytral markings predominating in extent over light markings, 
those of each elytron broadly to narrowly joining beyond sutural 
region (fig. 83); pronotum dark reddish to black with yellowish 


i vaniae Schaeffer 
Markings. «. -« \ Bit elseetegieare cowaniae 


24 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Dark elytral markings about equaling yellow markings in extent, not 
meeting beyond sutural region (fig. 110); pronotum orange or red 
with yellowish markings. . . . . . triundulatus, new species 

105(99). All dark elytral markings joining (fie. 102); length 4.2 mm.; Arizona. 
contextus, oe species 

Dark elytral markings not joining, with three to seven isolated spots in 
addition to other markings (figs. 76 and 77); length 4.3 to 6.5 mm.; 
eastern to central states and Texas. .. . mutabilis Melsheimer 


Genus Cryptocephalus Miiller 


Cryptocephalus Miller, 1764, p. xiii. [Type-species Chrysomela sericea, designated 
by Latreille, 1810, p. 432; see Barber, in Blake, 1931, ps 2.] 

Homalopus Chevrolat, 1837, p. 422 [in Dejean]. [Type-species Cryptocephalus 
loreyi Solier, by monotypy.] 

Physicerus Chevrolat, 1837, p. 420 [in Dejean]. [Type-species Cryptocephalus 
speciosus Guerin, by monotypy.] 

Strigophorus Chevrolat, 1837, p. 422 [7%n Dejean]. [Nomen nudum.] 

Disopus Chevrolat, 1837, p. 425 [in Dejean]. [Type-species Chrysomela pini L. 
by monotypy.] 

Protophysus Chevrolat, 1837, p. 422 [in Dejean]. [Type-species Cryptocephalus 
lobatus F., designated by Monros and Bechyne, 1956, p. 1123.] 

Dicenopsis Saunders, 1842, p. 70. [Type-species Dicenopsis haematodes Boisduval, 
by monotypy.] 

Anodonta Saunders, 1843, p. 66 [preoccupied, Lamarck, 1799]. [Type-species 
Anodonta roei Saunders, by monotypy.] 

Idiocephala Saunders, 1845, p. 142 [described as subgenus]. [Type-species by origi- 
nal designation Anodonta roet Saunders. New synonymy.] 

Proctophysus Redtenbacher, 1845, p. 118 [error for Protophysus Chevrolat]. 

Taxaris Gistel, 1848, p. 123 [replacement for Disopus.] 

Canthostethus Haldeman, 1849, p. 245 [described as subgenus]. [Type-species 
Canthostethus rugicollis Haldeman by present designation (preoccupied, = 
Cryptocephalus schreibersii Suffrian).] 

Mecostethus Stal, 1858, p. 61. [Type-species Mecostethus sahlbergi Stal, by mono- 
typy.] 

Euphyma Baly, 1877b, p. 224. [Type-species Idiocephala flaviventris Saunders 
(1845, p. 147), by present designation.] 

Stegnocephala Baly, 1877a, p. 32. [Type-species Cryptocephalus hemixanthus 
Suffrian, by original indication (synonymized by Weise, 1921, p. 8).] 

Ceropachys Burlini, 1953, p. 75 [described as subgenus]. [Type-species Crypto- 
cephalus kocheri Burlini (preoccupied by Pic, 1951, p. 86, =Cryptocephalus 
emiliae Burlini, 1954, p. 174), by original designation. Preoccupied, Costa, 
1847.] 

Heterodactylus Medvedev, 1963, p. 38 [described as subgenus]. [Type-species 
Cryptocephalus macrodactylus Gebler, by original designation. Preoccupied, 
Spix, 1825.] 

Asiopus Lopatin, 1965, p. 452 [described as subgenus]. [Type-species Crypto- 
cephalus flavicollis F., by original designation. Preoccupied, Sharp, 1892.] 

Burlinius Lopatin, 1965, p. 455 [described as subgenus]. [Type-species Crypto- 
cephalus fuluus Goeze, by original designation.] 


Geofiroy (1762, p. 231) is usually cited as author of this genus. 
Because he did not use the requisite binary system of nomenclature, 














CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 25 


however, the Commission on Zoological Nomenclature in Opinion 228 
(Opinions and Declarations, vol. 4, part 18, p. 211, issued April 1954) 
placed this work on the Official Index of Rejected and Invalid Works 
in Zoological N omenclature. The first valid description of Crypto- 
ay is found in Miiller’s Fauna Insectorum Fridrichsdalina (1764, 
p. xiii). 

The first five synonyms in the list are here credited to Chevrolat 
by virtue of Dejean’s introductory statement (1837, xiii) that he used 
names created by Chevrolat and by the citation of Chevrolat after 
these genera in the list. 

Homalopus Chevrolat (in Dejean, 1837) is cited in Neave (1939, 
v. 2, p. 681) as a nomen nudum; however, the accompanying citation 
in Dejean’s list of the name loreyi (Solier, 1836, p. 687, not Dejean) 
constitutes an indication and thus validates the name Homalopus. 

The name ezaratus Dejean is cited with the new generic name 
Strigophorus Chev. in Dejean’s list; evidently exaratus was not pub- 
lished previously, so both it and Strigophorus are nomina nuda. 

The generic name Disopus has generally been credited to Stephens, 
1839; it first appeared, however, in Dejean’s catalog (1837, p. 425) 
and was there credited to Chevrolat. The accompanying citation of 
the Linneaus species pint (not Fabricius) described in 1758 as Chry- 
somela pint is an indication and validates the name Disopus as of 1837, 
with Chevrolat as its author. 

Idwcephala has generally been recognized as a valid genus, and 
when included in the synonymy of Cryptocephalus, it has been followed 
by “pars.” This, I believe, has been influenced by the treatment of 
Baly (1877a, p. 31) in which he states that “‘S. speciosa, Boisduval’’ 
(probably speciosus Guérin) and catorantha Saunders may be con- 
sidered as types. Neither speciosa nor catorantha were included among 
the species in the original description of [diocephala, so neither can 
be the type-species. In the original description, the generic name is 
followed by ‘“T'ype A. Roe’; this clearly serves as the type-species 
designation and refers to Anodonta roei Saunders (1843, p. 67). The 
latter species is now considered a subspecies of Cryptocephalus consors 
Boisduval (1835, p. 588); consequently Idiocephala is a synonym of 
Cryptocephalus. 

Clavareau in Coleopterorum Catalogus (1913, p. 202) listed Aporo- 
cera Saunders as, in part, synonymic with [diocephala; however, none 
of the species originally included in Aporocera are now in Idiocephala 
or Cryptocephalus, so Aporocera is not a synonym. 

Three of the names in the list of generic synonymy (all described as 
subgenera) are preoccupied. I will not propose replacement names for 
these because I find it quite easy to dispense with subgeneric names. 

The species in the following account are arranged alphabetically 
so they may be located readily. 


26 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Cryptocephalus albicans Haldeman 
Figure 71 
Cryptocephalus albicans Haldeman, 1849, p. 252. 


Pronotum: Usually light orange with disk and large basal triangular 
area each side rather reddish, sometimes dull creamy yellow throughout ; 
punctation dual, larger punctures minute to small. 

Elytra: Light orange or creamy yellow and with dark reddish to 
black markings. Markings as follows: first stria usually dark at base 
to dark throughout; second interval usually vaguely darkened at 
base; second stria black to (and sometimes beyond) middle of elytra; 
third stria sometimes dark at base; fourth stria usually dark at apex; 
at side with complete black vitta from humerus to apex of seventh 
interval, vitta sometimes reduced apically. With eight (sometimes 
apparently nine) rows of punctures, sixth and seventh (or, when nine 
rows, sixth, seventh, and eighth) rows confused; punctures as large 
and dense as usual, distinctly smaller at elytral apex; inner and outer 
rows distinct and clearly meeting at apex. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin broadly, not strongly lobed in female; 
feebly lobed in male. 

Length 4.8 to 6.3 mm. 

Discussion.—The six Florida specimens before me have the elytral 
intervals finely, transversely rugose; this significantly reduces the 
shininess of the elytra. In two Georgia and three South Carolina 
specimens, the rugosity is reduced to absent, and the elytra are dis- 
tinctly shiny. The single Mississippi specimen has the elytra finely, 
transversely wrinkled and shiny. Two specimens from Florida were 
taken on Cassia species. 

DistRIBUTION.—Twelve specimens have been seen from Florida, 
South Carolina, Mississippi, and Georgia. 


Cryptocephalus alternans jungovittatus, new subspecies 
Fiaures 94, 115 


General: Body 1.64 to 1.74 times as long as wide; dorsal surface 
shiny, lacking pubescence, most of ventral surface with short, sparse, 
whitish pubescence. 

Head: Light orange or yellowish, antennal insertions and median 
longitudinal line on vertex black, labrum dark reddish; front with 
moderately coarse, small punctures, vertex anteriorly with a slight 
depression; clypeus sharply delimited at sides, feebly so at base, 
distinctly broadest at apex, somewhat concave. Antennae a little 
over two-thirds length of body in male, a little less than two-thirds 
length of body in female. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO Zi 


Pronotum: Background color light orange or creamy yellow, dark 
markings black, in general not sharply delimited, margins often brown 
to reddish, orange or yellowish areas at sides and near apex often 
speckled with reddish or brownish. Dark markings as follows: On 
most of disk and basally on each side; laterally each side a small spot; 
discal markings narrowly touching basal spots (holotype) or not 
(allotype). Punctation dual, smaller punctures minute, moderate in 
density, larger punctures small, rather sparse. 

Elytra: Background color light orange, dark markings black, 
sharply delimited. Markings of each elytron as follows: on sutural 
stria; on second, fourth, and sixth intervals, vittae on second and 
fourth intervals joined at base (holotype) or not (allotype), weakly 
joined at apex (allotype) or not (holotype), vitta on sixth interval 
somewhat expanded laterally at humerus; seventh stria and lateral 
margin beyond middle black. Each elytron with seven striae and a 
short series behind humerus; punctures rather small, usually forming 
even rows, rows five and six uneven or a little confused, latter more 
often so; punctures distinctly smaller toward apex; inner and outer 
rows distinct and usually meeting at apex. 

Ventral surfaces: Prosternum and mesosternum light orange or yel- 
lowish, former clouded with brownish at side; metasternum yellowish 
and clouded with brownish or blackish, especially at sides; metepi- 
sternum black; abdomen predominantly yellowish basally at center, 
at apex, and at sides, remainder clouded with brownish or blackish; 
femora with anterior face clouded with brownish, margins pre- 
dominantly yellowish, posterior face brownish or black throughout; 
tibiae with outer margin brown, darkest at apex, inner margin yellow- 
ish, lightest at base; tarsi brown. Anterior margin of prosternum 
produced ventrally into a distinct, pointed lobe in male, lobe less 
produced in female. Fifth abdominal segment somewhat depressed 
at center in male, or deeply depressed into an oval fovea in female. 
Pygidium with distinct, rather dense punctures, black basally, yellow- 
ish to light orange apically. 

Length: 4.7 to 5.0 mm. 

TypE pata.—The description is from two individuals taken at 
Monterey, California, on July 30, 1927, by D. H. Blake. The male 
holotype (type number 69252) and the allotype are in the US. 
National Museum. 

Discusston.—The external differences exhibited by this subspecies 
and two specimens of C. alternans alternans Sufirian from Mexico in 
the USNM collection are primarily a matter of coloration. In a. 
alternans, the discal and lateral dark markings of the pronotum 
broadly join; in a. jungovittatus they do not or just narrowly join. 


28 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Also, the lateral pronotal spot is distinctly larger in a. alternans than 
in a. jungovittatus. The seventh elytral stria of a. alternans is not 
darkly pigmented; that of a. gungovittatus is pigmented. The meta- 
sternum and abdomen of a. alternans are predominantly black; those 
of a. jungovittatus are mostly yellowish or brownish. The anterior 
faces of the femora of a. alternans are yellowish, and each has a 
moderate-sized, nearly median black spot; this part of the fermora of 
a. jungovittatus is mostly brownish with the margins yellowish. The 
tibiae of a. alternans are black throughout; those of a. jungovittatus 
are yellowish and brown. I find no differences between the external 
and internal form of the male genitalia of these subspecies. 

This subspecies (and confluentus melanoscelus) is described in detail 
because of the closeness of members in the confluentus group and the 
difficulty in assigning with certainty specific and subspecific status in 
this group. 

Cryptocephalus amatus amatus Haldeman 
FIGURE 39 
Cryptocephalus amatus Haldeman, 1849, p. 253. 


Pronotum: Creamy yellow with four longitudinal orange or black 
bands. Two median bands broadest at middle, lateral two bands 
broadest basally, smuate, sometimes vaguely coalescing near apex 
with inner bands. Punctation dual, larger punctures minute to small. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow with black markings, punctures dark to 
black. Markings as follows: third interval, vaguely darkened to black 
at basal fourth to third and near apex; fifth and sixth intervals 
darkened to black at apical half; humerus black; eighth interval 
vaguely darkened to black nearly throughout. With eight rows of 
punctures (sometimes evidently nine near base), fifth, sixth, and 
seventh rows confused, punctures a little larger than usual, quite 
distinct to apex; inner and outer rows distinct at apex, nearly always 
clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Lobed anteriorly and with a short, sharp, vertical spine 
behind margin in male; that of female broadly lobed and somewhat 
produced. 

Length: 3.4 to 4.3 mm. 

Discussion.—A single biological note records a specimen as taken 
on foliage of Solanum elaeagnifolium Cav. (“Elagnifolium Solanum’’). 

Distrripution.—Only three specimens have been examined; one 
each from Alpine and Chisos Mts., Texas and one from Melrose, 
New Mexico. These are the first precise locality records for this 
subspecies. 

















CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 29 


Cry ptocephalus amatus apicedens Fall 
Figures 7, 40 
Cryptocephalus apicedens Fall, 1932, p. 22. 


Pronotum: Yellow to (sometimes) light orange with four broad, 
light reddish to nearly black longitudinal vittae, latter frequently 
coalescing and interrupting or narrowing intervening yellow; puncta- 
tion dual, larger punctures minute to small. 

Elytra: Yellow to (sometimes) light orange with black markings. 
Markings as follows: scutellar interval usually darkened to black; 
first interval dark reddish to (usually) black; second interval dark 
reddish to (usually) black nearly always throughout; intervals five 
to and including eight dark reddish or (usually) black nearly through- 
out; sixth interval at base and seventh at apex often yellowish to 
varying degrees; vittae nearly always sharply delimited by striae. 
With eight rows of punctures (sometimes apparently nine at base), 
fifth, sixth, and seventh confused, punctures a little larger than usual, 
distinct to apex; inner and outer rows distinct at apex and nearly 
always clearly uniting. 

Prosternum: Male with anterior margin lobed and with a short, 
sharp, vertical spine behind margin; female with anterior margin 
broadly lobed and rather produced, lacking a spine. 

Length: 3.4 to 4.3 mm. 

Discussion.—Fall (1934, p. 174) synonymized his apicedens 
(incorrectly cited as apicidens) with amatus Haldeman. I find sufficient 
differences between Haldeman’s amatus and specimens that agree 
closely with Fall’s description of apicedens to justify ranking apicedens 
as a subspecies of amatus. In a. amatus, the first elytral interval is 
not darkened; the third interval at about the basal third is vaguely 
darkened to black and vaguely to distinctly darkened at the apex; 
the fifth and sixth intervals (the fifth stria becomes obsolete) are 
distinctly darkened to black at the apical half, the humerus is black, 
and the seventh interval is vaguely darkened at the base to black 
nearly throughout. In a. apicedens, the first interval is black or dark, 
and this dark vitta continues to the apex; the third interval is dark 
or black throughout though sometimes interrupted near the apex. 
The fifth interval (and the combined fifth and sixth beyond the 
middle) is black or dark throughout; the humerus and eighth interval 
are black or dark. The latter two vittae are joined at the middle or are 
confluent throughout. 

DisrriputTion.—The nine specimens examined are from Fort 
Wingate, New Mexico, and Colorado Springs, Colorado. 


313-144— 68——3 


30 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Cryptocephalus amatus fractilineatus, new subspecies 
Ficures 6, 95, 116 


Head: Front creamy yellow with inverted V from vertex to antennal 
insertions deep orange, clypeus and labrum more or less orange, 
antennae of male about three-fourths length of body, basal five 
segments dull orange to brownish, last six segments dark brown. 

Pronotum: Deep orange with light markings creamy yellow, not 
sharply delimited; a narrow median, longitudinal, yellowish, indistinct 
stripe at anterior half; lateral margin yellowish, narrowly so at basal 
half, more broadly so at anterior half; anterior margin narrowly 
yellowish; with vague indications of light, oblique basal spots. 

Elytra: Ground color creamy yellow, dark markings black, sharply 
delimited by striae. Dark markings of each elytron as follows: on 
suture from base to apex; on first interval except basal third; on basal 
third and apical sixth of third interval; on humerus and sixth and 
seventh intervals to past middle, latter markings joining those of 
fifth interval at middle. Rows of punctures in yellow areas more or 
less darkly pigmented. Punctures as in a. amatus. 

Ventral surface: Prosternum at center, mesosternum and side 
pieces, and first abdominal segment basally at center yellowish; 
prosternum at side and legs basally orange, latter nearly brown 
apically; metasternum, metepisternum, and first four abdominal 
segments (with above exception) reddish black; fifth abdominal 
segment reddish at middle, orange at side; pygidium reddish, nearly 
black at center. Anterior margin of prosternum in male as in a. amatus. 

Length: 3.8 mm. 

TypE pata.—Described from a single male specimen bearing the 
following data: Platte County, Wyoming, June 30, 1951, R. E. Pfadt 
collector; USNM type number 69247. 

Discusston.—This subspecies is most similar to a. apicedens Fall; 
the most apparent difference between the two is the extent of the 
vitta on the third interval. In a. apicedens, this vitta is continuous 
throughout or narrowly interrupted near the apex. In a. fractilineatus, 
this vitta is broadly interrupted from before the middle to before the 
apex. The subspecific name (meaning broken line) refers to this 
interrupted vitta. The male genitalia of a. amatus and a. apicedens 
are essentially identical to this subspecies in external and internal 
form. 

Cryptocephalus arizonensis arizonensis Schaeffer 
FiGurRE 43 
Cryptocephalus arizonensis Schaeffer, 1904, p. 225. 


Pronotum: Orange to red, often with basal oblique spots and 
margins vaguely lighter; punctation dual, larger punctures minute to 
small. 








| 
\ 
} 





CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 31 


Elytra: Dark, shining metallic green or blue, epipleuron yellow to 
(more often) dark reddish. With nine rows of punctures, rows six, 
seven, and eight confused, punctures as large, dense as usual, finer 
apically as usual; inner and outer rows distinct to slightly confused at 
apex, usually meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male distinctly produced into a 
broadly V-shaped lobe; female with anterior margin rather produced 
into a broad lobe. 

Length: 4.2 to 5.4 mm. 

Discussion.—The two Schaeffer cotypes are in the U.S. National 
Museum, both are females from Pinal Mountains, Arizona; they bear 
the type number 42280. The specimen with Schaeffer’s determination 
label is hereby designated the lectotype and is so labeled. 

Pallister (1953, p. 30) described the subspecies arizonensis schrammeli 
from Durango, Mexico. 

Schaeffer (1906, p. 238) recorded the species from oak. 

DistriBuTion.—Twenty-six of the 28 USNM specimens are from 
southeast and north central Arizona; one is from Alpine, Texas, and 
another is from Mescalero, New Mexico. 


Cryptocephalus astralosus, new species 
Figures 96, 114 


General: Body about 1.8 times as long as wide; dorsal surface 
distinctly shining, lacking pubescence; most of ventral surface with 
short, sparse, whitish pubescence. 

Head: Dull light orange; front and clypeus with moderate sized, 
rather dense punctures; clypeus not sharply delimited at sides or base, 
distinctly broadest at apex. Antennae of male about three-fourths 
length of body, first four segments dull orange, outer seven dark brown. 

Pronotum: Dull light orange, with darker speckling except in broad 
transverse, oblique band at base, anteriorly on each side, and at apex. 
Punctation dual, smaller punctures minute and sparse, larger punctures 
small, not dense. 

Elytra: Dull light orange, humerus faintly darker, punctures dark. 
Each elytron with nine rows of rather large punctures, these much the 
largest at about center of elytron (sometimes sixth row reduced and 
evidently with eight rows); rows six, seven, and eight more or less 
confused; punctures much smaller apically; inner and outer rows 
distinct and clearly meeting at apex. 

Ventral surface: Prosternum, mesosternum, and legs dull light 
orange; metasternum and most of abdomen dark brown to nearly 
black; first abdominal segment at middle orange, sides of each segment 
with light, sometimes vague spots. Pygidium with median carina, 
carina and margins black or dark, sides yellowish to orange. Anterior 


32 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


margin of prosternum produced ventrally into a broad, blunt lobe in 
male. Fifth abdominal segment in male faintly depressed. 

Length: 3.9 to 4.0 mm. 

Typr para.—This description is from two nearly identical males, 
both taken at Flagstaff, Arizona, on “‘VI-23-37,” by D. J. and J. N. 
Knull. The holotype is in the OSU collection; the single paratype is in 
the USNM collection. 

Discussion.—The species is superficially similar to venustus sumplezx. 
The two are readily separated by the comparative sizes of the elytral 
punctures. In astralosus, the punctures of adjacent striae are separated 
by about their diameters; in v. simplex, they are separated by four or 
more times their diameters. Also, astralosus is known only from Ari- 
zona, and is 3.9 to 4.0 mm. long. C. v. simplex is known from New 
Hampshire to Virginia to Wisconsin and is 4.1 to 5.8 mm. long. 

The Central American species sordidus Suffrian is closely related to 
astralosus. A single specimen in the USNM collection determined as 
sordidus is markedly similar in form, color of the dorsal surface, and 
elytral punctation to astralosus. The chief difference is that the head, 
prosternum, and mesosternum of sordidus are almost entirely black; 
these parts of astralosus are dull orange throughout. Also the latter 
measures, 3.9 to 4.0 mm. long, and the single specimen of sordidus is 4.5 
mm. long. 


Cry ptocephalus atrofasciatus Jacoby 
Friauress 46, 119 
Cry ptocephalus atrofasciatus Jacoby, 1880, p. 48. 


Pronotum: Light orange to red, usually with basal oblique spots and 
margins yellow or lighter than remainder, not sharply delimited; sur- 
face punctation dual, larger punctures minute to moderate in size. 

Elytra: Usually yellow or orange with three transverse, generally 
distinct, undulating orange, red, or (usually) black bands. When 
bands black, these sometimes expanded and partly to largely con- 
fluent, elytra thus sometimes predominantly black with vague to 
distinct elongate yellow spots. With eight rows of punctures, sixth, 
seventh, and usually fifth rows entwined, punctures as usual in size 
and density, finer apically as usual; inner and outer rows distinct at 
apex, nearly always clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced into broad V-shaped 
lobe; female with anterior margin somewhat produced into a broad 
lobe. 

Length: 5.0 to 7.5 mm. 

Discusston.—This species is one of the most variable in the genus in 
coloration. Continuous intermediates exist between the one extreme 
in which the elytra are yellow with rather vague orange bands and the 











CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 33 


other in which the elytra are almost entirely black. The extreme forms 
are few so these are not provided for in the key. 

Distrisution.—The 54 specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
are from Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. 


Cryptocephalus aulicus Haldeman 
Figure 75 
Cryptocephalus aulicus Haldeman, 1849, p. 249. 


Pronotum: Red to orange with two basal oblique spots, lateral and 
apical margins yellowish, light areas not sharply delimited, latter often 
expanded and with discal and lateral basal areas orange or reddish; 
disk distinctly gibbous in profile; punctation dual, smaller punctures 
rather dense, larger punctures large and quite coarse, infrequently 
moderate to small in size and moderately coarse. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to orange with dark spots. Each elytron 
usually with subequal dark reddish or black spots as follows: near 
apex of second interval; at base of third interval; at or near apex 
of sixth interval; on humerus, sometimes with any or all spots (except 
humeral) reduced or absent. With eight rows of punctures, sixth and 
seventh rows confused, punctures as large as but generally sparser 
than usual, finer apically as usual; inner and outer rows distinct at 
apex and nearly always clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes evenly arcuate. 

Length: 6.0 to 7.5 mm. 

Discussion.—Notes on this species refer to its being taken on 
flowers of Befaria racemosa Vent. and on Asimina pygmaea (Bartr.) 
leaves. 

DistrisuTion.—Forty specimens have been seen, all collected in 
Florida. Previous papers have included Georgia as part of the distri- 
bution of the species, but no specimens from this state are in the 
USNM collection. The northernmost record among the individuals 
I have seen is from Enterprise, Florida, just south of Daytona Beach. 


Cryptocephalus badius Suffrian 
Ficure 82 


Cryptocephalus badius Suffrian, 1852a, p. 315. 


Pronotum: Orange to deep red, often with lateral and apical margins 
partly to mostly yellow; punctation usually dual, small punctures 
sometimes evidently absent, large punctures small to minute. 

Elytra: Each elytron orange to deep red and with yellow as follows: 
at base from behind scutellum laterally to fifth interval, usually con- 
tinuous, narrowed, or interrupted at second interval and narrowed at 
fourth interval; at middle of side from fifth interval to lateral margin; 
near apex on third, fourth, and seventh intervals; at apex. With seven 


34 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


rows of punctures and a short series behind humerus, fifth and sixth 
rows interrupted at middle and joining behind middle, row some- 
times confused beyond junction; punctures as usual to larger than 
usual, finer apically as usual; inner and outer rows distinct at apex and 
clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Evenly arcuate and somewhat produced in both sexes. 

Length: 3.6 to 4.6 mm. 

Discusston.—A single specimen was taken on cotton. Wilcox 
(1954, p. 385) records it as beaten from walnut. 

Distrinution.—The 69 specimens examined were collected in 
Pennsylvania, Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, West Virginia, Ken- 
tucky, Tennessee, Florida, Mississippi, Kansas, and Oklahoma. 


Cryptocephalus basalis Suffrian 
Figure 21 
Cryptocephalus basalis Suffrian, 1852b, p. 54. 


Pronotum: With fine, silvery pubescence; black throughout; 
punctation dual, larger punctures moderate, dense. 

Elytra: With fine, silvery pubescence. Hach elytron black and with 
following orange to red: basal half (except humerus and suture behind 
scutellum); apex, basal markings not attaining apical spot, posterior 
margin of basal spot convex. With nine rows of punctures, sixth and 
seventh rows sometimes confused, punctures as large and dense as 
usual though often less distinct than usual; inner and outer rows at 
apex distinct and usually meeting. 

Posternum: Anterior margin in male with a large, sharp, downward 
and posteriorly directed spine; anterior margin in female with a small, 
downwardly directed process. 

Length: 4.7 to 5.8 mm. 

Discusston.—This species and mucoreus have been confused in the 
literature, but, as pointed out by Wilcox (1953, p. 51), the two are 
distinct. 

Douglass (1929, p. 8) recorded the species from sumac (Rhus 
glabra L.) and sorghum in Kansas; these records may be in error. 

DistriputTion.—Only five specimens of this species have been seen, 
and all are from the Davis Mountains of Texas. Wilcox (1953, p. 51) 
recorded it from Arizona. 


Cryptocephalus binominis binominis Newman 
FIGURE 26 


Cryptocephalus binominis Newman, 1841, p. 78. 


Pronotum: Black (usually) to dark reddish throughout; punctation 
dual, larger punctures minute to small. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 35 


Elytra: Each elytron black or dark reddish with light orange to red 
as follows: lateral one-half (or slightly less) at base with inner posterior 
portion of spot extending inward, nearly or quite attaining suture 
leaving broad scutellar area black; apical fourth or fifth; basal avi 
apical spots never meeting. With nine rows of punctures (sometimes 
evidently with eight), usually fifth, sixth, seventh, and eighth rows 
confused, sometimes one much reduced; punctures as large and dis- 
tinct as usual but generally sparser, finer apically as usual; inner and 
outer rows distinct at apex, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male with a small, vertical, 
V-shaped lobe; anterior margin in female produced into a broad, 
rather pointed lobe. 

Length: 3.6 to 4.8 mm. 

Discussion.—A single specimen in the USNM collection was taken 
on Pinus sylvestris L. 

Young (1959, p. 104) recorded this species as a fossil. 

Disrripution.—The 34 specimens in the USNM collection are 
from Florida, Alabama, Georgia, South Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, 
and the District of Columbia. 


Cryptocephalus binominis rufibasis Schaeffer 


FIGURE 27 


Cryptocephalus binominis rufibasis Schaeffer, 1933, p. 322. 


Pronotum: Black throughout, shining; punctation dual, moderate 
in density. 

Elytra: Basal half of each elytron bright red throughout (type) or 
with vague to distinct black markings near scutellum, at most with 
intervals one to four black at base; apical half of elytron black with 
large, bright red spot at apex; basal and apical red spots never meet- 
ing. With eight rows of punctures (sometimes evidently nine), rows 
five, six, and seven confused, punctures as large and distinct as usual 
though sparser than usual, finer apically as usual; inner and outer 
rows distinct at apex and usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced into a short, dis- 
tinct, rather sharp spine; anterior margin in female produced into a 
short, rather broad lobe. 

Length: 4.2 to 5.0 mm. 

Discusston.—Schaeffer’s two ‘cotypes are in the U.S. National 
Museum; both were taken at Punta Gorda, Florida, on November 13. 
One is a male; the other a female. The male bears Schaeffer’s deter- 
mination label and the type number 69068 and is here designated the 
lectotype. 

In addition, I have assigned two individuals to this species. They 
agree closely with the types except that both have black at the base 


36 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


of each elytron near the scutellum. The black area is small in one 
and fairly large in the other; the latter individual approaches the con- 
dition in 6. binominis. The lectotype has no indication of black at the 
elytral base, but the cotype has a faint indication of black. 

Distripution.—All four specimens seen are from Florida; the two 
that are not types are from Paradise Key and Tampa. 


Cryptocephalus binotatus, new species 
Figures 138, 97, 112 


General: Body 1.66 to 1.80 times as long as wide; dorsal surface 
moderately shining, lacking pubescence, ventral surface with short, 
sparse, whitish pubescence. 

Head: Dull light orange, vertex and antennal insertions darker 
orange; front with rather small, indistinct punctures; clypeus flat, 
sides sharply delimited, less distinctly so at base, distinctly broadest 
apically; antennae of male as long as body, those of female about 
two-thirds as long as body, orange to light brownish throughout. 

Pronotum: Basic color light orange; male with four longitudinal 
dark reddish stripes, not sharply delimited, often a little abbreviated 
and somewhat irregular, outer two may be interrupted medially; 
female with development of dark markings variable, sometimes with 
four rather abbreviated, irregular stripes, usually much reduced, often 
with traces of stripes or just basal traces of outer stripes (holotype), 
or absent; punctation usually dual, with small punctures dense, larger 
punctures rather large and slightly to distinctly coarse, sometimes 
with larger punctures very coarse and surface rather rugose and 
obscuring small punctures. 

Elytra: Light orange with punctures dark reddish to nearly black. 
Punctures best developed in some males, these with seven or eight 
rather easily traced rows; most males and nearly all females with 
punctures quite confused and forming distinct rows only apically, 
sometimes basally also; adjacent discal punctures sometimes irregu- 
larly connected by pigment; punctures smaller at apex; inner and 
outer rows distinct and usually clearly meeting. 

Ventral surface: Nearly uniformly light orange throughout, legs with 
apices of femora more or less light orange, remainder of legs darker 
orange to nearly reddish; prosternum of male with anterior margin 
produced into a broad lobe, female with anterior margin feebly, 
broadly produced; pygidium longitudinally carinate, light orange, 
rather coarsely punctate. 

Length: 4.1 to 5.0 mm. 

Type pata.—The species is described from ten specimens. The 
holotype (female, USNM type number 69248) was taken at Yuma, 
Arizona, in June, 1909 by A. McLachlan. The allotype, four male and 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 37 


four female paratypes were taken at Winterhaven, California, on 
June 25, 1952, by D. J. and J. N. Knull; the allotype and six of the 
paratypes are in the Ohio State University collection. Male and female 
paratypes are in the USNM collection. 

Discussion.—The species is separable from its nearest relative 
duryi by the development of the pronotal stripes and the elytral 
punctures. In duryi, the pronotal stripes are sharply delimited and 
complete; in binotatus, they are irregular and less sharply delimited to 
incomplete, much reduced, or even absent. The elytral punctures of 
duryi are quite large, confused, and have only faintly evident (or no) 
traces of alignment into rows. There is a tendency toward lateral 
interconnection of the discal punctures by reddish pigment. The ely tral 
punctures of binotatus are smaller, distinctly aligned into rows at least 
apically, sometimes also basally (and even throughout in some males), 
and the punctures are infrequently interconnected by pigment. This 
species is named for the type which has two dark pronotal spots. 


Cryptocephalus bispinus Suffrian 
Figure 72 
Cryptocephalus bispinus Suffrian, 1858, p. 347. 


Pronotum: Red to orange with lighter basal oblique spots (some- 
times vague), lateral and apical margin orange or yellow, lighter areas 
usually not sharply delimited, rarely almost entirely red with lateral 
and apical margins yellowish; punctation dual, larger punctures minute 
to small. 

Elytra: Each elytron creamy yellow to orange with two dark 
orange to red or even black vittae as follows: from base of second, 
third, and fourth intervals to apex of first interval, always complete 
(rarely with scutellar and first interval also dark); from humerus to 
apex of fourth, fifth, and sixth intervals, nearly always complete, 
rarely interrupted once. With eight rows of punctures, sixth and 
seventh rows confused, punctures small, dense, much finer apically; 
inner and outer rows distinct at apex, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin evenly arcuate in both sexes. 

Length: 4.0 to 6.7 mm. 

Discusston.—The species has been previously reported only from 
Florida. During this work, I encountered individuals from Georgia, 
Alabama, and Texas. The 14 southeastern specimens are all females 
and range in length from 5.6 to 6.7 mm. The 21 Texas specimens con- 
sist of 10 females and 11 males; the females range in length from 5.4 to 
6.2 mm., and the males from 4.0 to 4.9 mm. All the Texas specimens 
are from the eastern part of the state. I have found no significant 
differences between the southeastern and Texas females of this species, 


38 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


though the Texas specimens are slightly smaller and the vittae usually 
are more reddish. The Texas#specimens that I accept as males of 
bispinus are slightly lighter in color and average a little larger than 
males of calidus, but I find no reliable external charactersjfor dis- 
tinguishing the two. I suspect that southeastern males of bispinus 
are mixed with calidus in our material. C. calidus occurs within the 
eastern range of bispinus, and I am unable to distinguish the male of 
bispinus from males of calidus from this region. Because the un- 
recognized males of bispinus from the southeast are not provided for in 
the key, they are likely to key to calidus. Males of bispinus from 
Texas will run to the correct name in the key. 

Collection notes record specimens as taken on sugarcane, in cotton 
fields, and on Stillingia sylvatica L. 

DistripuTION.—The 42 specimens examined are from Florida, 
Alabama, Georgia, and Texas. 


Cryptocephalus bivius Newman 
Figures 4, 62, 113 
Cryptocephalus bivius Newman, 1840, p. 249. 


Pronotum: Creamy yellow to orange with four longitudinal, 
sharply delimited, usually more or less parallel-sided black vittae 
from base to apex, and a small black spot on each side; lateral two 
vittae may be slightly sinuate, a little expanded, or reduced. Puncta- 
tion dual, larger punctures small to minute, sometimes coarse. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to orange, usually lighter at sides and apex, 
with sharply delimited black markings. Dark markings as follows: at 
side a rather large, basal spot centered behind humerus (frequently 
reduced to one or two spots); a common, transverse spot centered 
before apex of sutural stria, usually attaining fourth interval, some- 
times reduced; a common sutural spot centered before union of first 
and second striae, sometimes reduced to two spots or absent; an oval 
spot at each side just behind middle, usually extending from fifth to 
eighth interval, sometimes reduced, never absent; infrequently some 
markings confluent; at extreme of least development, pattern with 
rather small humeral and lateral spots and two small apical spots. 
With eight rows of punctures, sixth and seventh rows confused, fifth 
row sometimes reduced, punctures larger, sparser than usual, finer to 
apex; inner and outer rows distinct at apex, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced into a short V- 
shaped lobe, anterior margin in female evenly arcuate. 

Length: 4.3 to 6.4 mm. 

DistriBuTion.—All 36 specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
are from Florida and Georgia. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 39 


The species has previously been recorded from Texas, but none of 
the specimens in the USNM collection are from this state. It is 
possible that these records represent misidentifications of leucomelas 
or texanus, as both are similar to bivius. 


Cryptocephalus brunneovittatus Schaeffer 
Fiaures 80, 118 
Cryptocephalus brunneovittatus Schaeffer, 1904, p. 226. 


Pronotum: Dull orange to orange or reddish orange, often with 
light basal oblique spots, lateral and apical margins vaguely lighter; 
punctation dual, larger punctures small to minute; surface shining. 

Elytra: Dull orange to orange and with reddish striae and vittae. 
With vague to distinct red to dark reddish vittae as follows: at basal 
two-thirds of fourth interval, apical one-third of interval usually 
vaguely darker; at apical half of sixth interval, vittae sharply de- 
limited by striae. With seven rows of punctures, all even and distinct, 
punctures sometimes larger than usual, always sharply impressed, 
distinct to apex; inner and outer rows distinct at apex and clearly 
meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin evenly arcuate in both sexes. 

Length: 3.4 to 4.6 mm. 

Discussion.—There are three specimens (two females, one male) 
in the U.S. National Musuem, each designated on two separate, 
plain labels as ‘“‘type,’’ and also on a third, red, museum label as 
cotypes; they bear the number 42281. The collection data are as 
follows: ‘“Esprza Rch., Brownsville, Tex.’? One of the females was 
taken on May 29; the others do not bear the date of collection. Two 
additional specimens (with differing data) had been placed with the 
cotypes but bear no type designation, and I have not accepted these 
as types. One of the females in the type series (the one bearing the 
date of collection) has a Schaeffer determination label; I have labeled 
it, and it is here designated as lectotype. 

All individuals in the U.S. National Museum have the elytral 
vittae light reddish to dark reddish (never black as given in the 
original description). Infrequently these vittae are vaguely indicated 
or essentially absent. The first vitta occupies the fourth interspace 
and is vague or absent at the apical third. The second vitta occupies 
the sixth interspace and is usually indistinct to absent at the basal 
half. The humerus is always more or less reddish. 

Schaeffer (1904, p. 227) was in error in stating that the males bear 
a large round impression on the last abdominal segment. This 1s 
always a female character in Cryptocephalus. 

Label data record specimens as taken on cowpea leaf, on Dolichus 
minimus L. (“Dolicholus minima”) leaf, and in cotton fields. 


40 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


DistrripuTion.—The 52 individuals in the USNM collection were 
taken in the southern fourth of Texas. 


Cry ptocephalus calidus Suffrian 
Fieures 73, 117 


Cryptocephalus calidus Suffrian, 1852, p. 241. 
Cryptocephalus carinatus Leconte, 1880, p. 202. [New synonymy.] 

Pronotum: Orange to dark red, usually with two light, oblique 
basal spots and with lateral and apical margins yellowish or lighter, 
light markings usually not sharply delimited. Punctation dual, larger 
punctures small to (infrequently) moderate in size and coarse. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to (sometimes) orange with dark vittae. 
Each elytron with two longitudinal black to (occasionally) dark red- 
dish vittae as follows: from base of second, third, and fourth intervals 
to or near apex of second interval (vitta always complete, rarely ex- 
panded); from humerus to apex of fourth and combined fifth, sixth, 
and seventh intervals (vitta infrequently interrupted once, sometimes 
expanded). With eight rows of punctures, fifth, sixth, and seventh 
rows confused, sixth sometimes greatly reduced, punctures as large, 
dense as usual, distinctly finer to apex; inner and outer rows distinct 
at apex and usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes evenly arcuate, not 
produced. 

Length: 4.2 to 5.6 mm. 

Discussion.—Schaeffer (1934, p. 458) synonymized calidus with 
insertus on the basis of the inadequacy of the characters presented by 
Leconte (1880, p. 202) as distinguishing the two. In the USNM series, 
I find two distinct species mixed under the two names. In the one 
species, the elytral vittae are nearly consistent in development, and 
the outer are rarely interrupted. This species I interpret as Suffrian’s 
calidus on the basis of agreement with his description and notes. He 
described calidus as very similar in color and color pattern to venustus 
F. and makes no mention of the vittae as being interrupted (as they 
are in the other species in the series). In the second species, the inner 
vitta of each elytron is complete and often expanded (especially in 
the male), and the outer vitta is interrupted once, twice, or nearly 
absent. In some males, the interrupted outer vitta is confluent with 
the inner. This condition best fits Haldeman’s description of the 
elytra of his insertus as follows: “extreme margins and disk black with 
two confluent vittae, leaving the exterior margin, apex, and a few 
streaks of flavous.”’ I interpret Haldeman’s name as referring to this 
species. Males of insertus range in length from 3.8 to 4.4 mm., and the 
inner elytral vittae are often expanded and confluent with the spots 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 41 


representing the outer vitta. The female ranges in length from 5.0 to 
5.8 mm.; the inner vitta is rarely expanded and the pronotum is 
usually darker than that of the male. 

Leconte (1880, p. 202) distinguished carinatus (described from 
Kansas) on the form of the prosternum, i.e., “carinate for its whole 
length.” Examination of a long series of individuals of calidus and 
specimens from Kansas assignable to carinatus shows this character 
to be variable in its development. The prosternum of most specimens 
of calidus is flat or slightly concave, but in occasional individuals, this 
is convex to obtusely carinate. Specimens from Kansas usually have 
the prosternum carinate, but this carina ranges from distinct to 
absent. I find no other external characters that would serve to dis- 
tinguish the category I believe to be Leconte’s carinatus from calidus. 
The only discrepancy I find in Leconte’s description is the size given 
for his male type (5.5 mm.). The size range of males of calidus is 4.2 
to 4.5 mm.; the female is 4.8 to 5.6 mm. long. 

I am not convinced that a single species is represented in the 
lengthy series I have assigned to this species (see notes under 6i- 
spinus). Females from various parts of the range closely approach 
bispinus in size and general coloration. Males often exhibit an expan- 
sion or reduction of the elytral vittae. 

Biological notes from labels record specimens from leaf of Lathyrus 
japonicus Willd. (“‘Lathyrus maritimus’’) and Lespedeza serecea Miq. 
(‘‘Lespedeza serecia’’). 

DisrripuTIoN.—I have assigned 252 specimens to this species. 
They were collected in the following areas: Massachusetts, Connecti- 
cut, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Maryland, Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Tennessee, Ohio, 
Ontario, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin, Mississippi, Kansas, Ne- 
braska, Colorado, Oklahoma, Iowa, South Dakota, and Montana. 

Two individuals in the collection bear California as the locality of 
collection, but it is likely that these labels are in error. 


Cryptocephalus castaneus Leconte 
Figures 12, 56, 57 


Cryptocephalus castaneus Leconte, 1880, p. 200. 


Pronotum: Creamy yellow to light orange with four broad, black 
to red or dark orange, longitudinal vittae, often expanded; median 
two vittae rarely meeting along midline; each lateral vitta usually 
arcuate or sinuate, frequently expanded and joining inner vitta; dark 
markings nearly always sharply delimited. Punctation dual, larger 
punctures minute to (rarely) rather large and coarse, at side usually 
with a distinct, shallow depression. 


42 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Elytra: Creamy yellow to orange with markings black to dark 
reddish or orange and variable. Discal markings of each elytron as 
follows: with a large basal and somewhat smaller anteapical spot, 
both frequently attaining suture, both often expanded and broadly 
joining, when expanded sometimes meeting suture, spots sometimes 
reduced. Spots at side of elytron variable, small, often with two 
humeral, one anteapical, and two apical spots, sometimes reduced or 
joined by discal markings. With eight rows of punctures, sixth and 
seventh rows confused, sometimes also fifth; usually punctures larger 
and/or sparser than usual, finer to apex; inner and outer rows distinct 
at apex and nearly always clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in female somewhat produced into a 
broad or somewhat pointed lobe; anterior margin in male distinctly 
produced into a downward, pointed lobe. 

Length: 3.9 to 5.3 mm. 

Discussion.—At one extreme of development of the color pattern, 
each elytron bears two large discal spots and four smaller spots 
laterally; often the discal spots are confluent at the suture. At the 
other extreme, the discal spots of each elytron are broadly confluent, 
thus forming a broad vitta; sometimes these vittae meet at the suture, 
usually they do not. Those specimens bearing broad vittae have three 
or four lateral spots. 

Label data record specimens as occurring on strawberry, willows, 
blackberry, holly, and alfalfa. 

Distripution.—Nearly all the 111 specimens in the USNM collec- 
tion are from California, Arizona, and New Mexico. Two specimens 
with identical data have Massachusetts as the locality of collection; 
this is almost certainly in error. Only two specimens represent the 
Arizona record and a single one the New Mexico record; the other 106 
specimens are from California. 


Cryptocephalus cerinus cerinus B. E. White 
Figures 1, 93 
Cryptocephalus cerinus cerinus B. BE. White, 1937, p. 111. 


Pronotum: Almost uniformly light orange with more or less distinct 
fine speckling, this absent in two vague basal oblique areas and at 
lateral and apical margins. Punctation dual, smaller punctures minute 
and dense, larger punctures very small, not dense. 

Elytra: Nearly uniformly light orange, punctures dark, intervals 
four and six sometimes vaguely darker, humerus more or less clouded. 
With seven distinct and even rows of punctures and a short series 
behind humerus, punctures fine and dense, finer to apex as usual; 
inner and outer rows distinct at apex, not or just meeting. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 43 


Prosternum: Anterior margin of prosternum in female produced 
into a distinct, ventrally directed, pointed lobe. 

Length: 5.5 to 6.0 mm. 

Discussion.—A single female paratype of this species is in the 
U.S. National Museum; the data is Lebec, California, VIII-1-36 
B. E. White collector, Chrysothamnus nauseous mohavensis (Ohpyan- 
thamnus nausesous mohavensis Hall). Another female paratype 
with the same data as above and from the B. E. White collection has 
been examined. 

C. c. cerinus is very similar to the description and illustration of 
C. mnconspicuus Jacoby (1880, p. 56). A specimen determined as the 
latter by Monros (and which agrees well with its description and 
illustration) differs from ¢. cerinus in that it is more orange; c. cerinus 
is more creamy yellow. There is a possibility that the two may be 
synonymous. 

One specimen is recorded from greasewood leaves and another from 
Covillea tridentata Vail. 

Distrisution.—The four specimens examined are from California, 
Nevada, and Texas. 


Cryptocephalus cerinus nevadensis B. E. White 
Figure 89 
Cryptocephalus cerinus nevadensis B. E. White, 1937, p. 113. 


Pronotum: Light orange in most areas with darker orange speckling; 
with vague reddish markings at center of disk and basally on each 
side; coloring lightest in two vague oblique basal spots, at sides, and 
at apex. Punctation dual, larger punctures small, fine, and sparse, 
smaller punctures minute, moderate in density. 

Elytra: Background color light orange, vittae brown to black. Each 
elytron with three vittae as follows: on second interval, indistinct 
apically; on fourth interval, sometimes indistinct basally; on sixth 
interval. With seven rows of even, distinct punctures and a short 
series behind humerus, punctures distinct and dense, finer to apex as 
usual; inner and outer rows distinct at apex and nearly or quite meet- 
ing. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced ventrally into a 
pointed lobe, in female produced ventrally into a broad, not distiactly 
pointed lobe. 

Length: 5.0 to 6.3 mm. 

Discusston.—I have seen only the holotype and allotype of this 
subspecies. Though they are superficially very similar to c. confluentus, 
they have the form and symmetry of ¢. cerinus. In the latter and c¢. 


44 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


nevadensis, the pronotum from the dorsal view is stouter than that of 
c. confluentus. 

Distripution.—The types of this subspecies were taken in Nevada; 
no other specimens are known to me. 


Cryptocephalus confluentus confluentus Say 
Ficures 16, 90, 121 


Cryptocephalus confluentus Say, 1824, p. 440. 
Cryptocephalus confluens Say, of authors. 

Pronotum: Orange to reddish (rarely blackish), usually with light 
yellowish markings in two basal oblique spots and at lateral and apical 
margins, usually darkest (sometimes black) basally on each side, light 
margins variable, often vague. Punctation dual, smaller punctures 
minute and dense, larger punctures very small, infrequently rather 
small and coarse. 

Elytra: Background color creamy yellow to light orange, vittae 
brown to black. Each elytron with three dark vittae as follows: on 
second interval, usually complete, sometimes vague apically; on fourth 
interval, sometimes vague or interrupted before middle, rarely vague 
at basal half and apex; on sixth interval, often vague or reduced at 
base. With seven distinct and even rows of punctures and a short 
series behind humerus, punctures fine, dense as usual, finer to apex as 
usual; inner and outer rows distinct at apex and nearly or quite 
meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced ventrally into a 
distinct, pointed lobe or spine, in female produced ventrally into a 
distinct, sometimes pointed lobe. 

Length: 4.0 to 5.7 mm. 

Discussion.—Haldeman (1849, p. 253) used the spelling confluens 
for this species as have nearly all authors since; I believe, however, 
this is an unjustified emendation and that the original spelling 
confluentus is correct. 

Two specimens from Mexico determined as C. abruptus Suffrian are 
similar to this species. They differ in that the yellowish pronotal 
markings (two basal spots and the lateral and apical margins) are 
distinct (not vague as in ¢. confluentus) and the vitta on the second 
elytral interval is interrupted or incomplete apically (nearly always 
complete in c¢. confluentus). Also each elytron bears a small, dark 
subhumeral spot; this is absent in ¢. confluentus. 

Tilden (1949, p. 151) recorded this species on Baccharis pilularis 
consanguinea O. Ktze. (Astereae). 

Label data provide the following records: Chrysothamnus, Chry- 
sothamnus speciosus Nutt, and Gutierrezia lucida Green. 














CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 45 


DistrisuTion.—The 65 specimens in the USNM collection are 
from Utah, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Nevada, 
Wyoming, Nebraska, Kansas, Montana, and Alberta, Canada. 


Blatchley (1924, p. 53) recorded the species from Florida, but this is 
probably an error. 


Cryptocephalus confluentus melanoscelus, new subspecies 


Figure 98 


General: Body 1.66 to 1.70 times as long as wide; widest behind 
humeri, somewhat tapering posteriorly; dorsal surfaces shining, with- 
out pubescence, most of ventral surface with short, sparse, whitish 
pubescence, most dense (as usual) on metepisternum. 

Head: Creamy yellow, antennal insertions and labrum reddish to 
dark, vertex usually (in two of three specimens) light orange; front 
with moderate-sized punctures, moderate in density; clypeus sharply 
delimited at sides, less so at base, distinctly broadest apically, noticea- 
bly concave. Antennae three-fourths length of body in male, or over 
one-half length of body in female; antennae brown, first segment and 
apical segments darkest. 

Pronotum: Predominantly light orange and speckled with darker 
orange but with unspeckled cream yellow in two oblique spots at base 
and at lateral and apical margins. Punctation dual, smaller punctures 
minute and dense, larger punctures very small, not coarse. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to very light orange, each elytron with black, 
sharply delimited vittae on intervals two, four, and six; vittae some- 
times cloudy or not sharply delimited at bases or apices; first vitta 
joining suture before apical fourth; second and third vittae narrowly 
joining before apex. Each elytron with seven rows of fine, even punc- 
tures and a short, sometimes confused series behind humerus; punc- 
tures distinctly finer apically; inner and outer rows distinct to apex 
and nearly or quite meeting. 

Ventral surface: Prosternum and mesosternum predominantly yel- 
lowish; metasternum yellowish at middle, brownish to black at side; 
metepisternum black. Abdomen mostly clouded brownish, yellowish 
as follows: at center of first segment; usually at center of segments 
two and three; entire fifth segment; in lateral spots at side of segments 
two, three, and four. Legs brownish to black, each lighter or with 
yellowish on femora above at base and below near apex; tibiae lighter 
at their bases. Anterior margin of prosternum in male produced ven- 
trally into a distinct, pointed lobe, in female produced ventrally into 
a shorter, pointed lobe. Fifth abdominal segment faintly depressed at 
center in male, with a deep, oval depression at center in female. 
Pygidium yellowish throughout to brownish at base, distinctly punc- 
tate, punctures moderate in density and coarseness. 

313-144 68—_4 


46 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Length: 4.5 to 6.0 mm. 

Type pata.—This description is from three individuals, all taken 
at ‘Searsville L.,’’ California, in June 1927 by D. H. Blake and on 
Baccharis pilularis DC. The locality refers to Searsville Lake in San 
Mateo County. The male holotype bears type number 69251; it, the 
allotype, and a female paratype are in the USNM collection. 

Discussion.—This subspecies differs from ¢. confluentus primarily 
in coloration. In c. melanoscelus, the legs are predominantly brownish 
or black, and the pronotum does not bear the reddish or black mark- 
ings typical of c. confluentus. In c. confluentus, the legs are yellowish 
or reddish (sometimes with a little brownish evident), and the pro- 
notum is generally reddish and often nearly black at the sides. The 
male genitalia of c. melanoscelus are essentially identical to those of 
c. confluentus. 


Cryptocephalus contextus, new species 
Figure 102 


General: Body 1.8 times as long as wide; dorsal surfaces rather 
shiny, elytra a little less shiny than pronotum; dorsum without pu- 
bescence, most of ventral surface with short, sparse pubescence. 

Head: Front and clypeus ivory yellow, an inverted V from vertex 
to antennal insertions, lateral margin of clypeus and labrum orange; 
front and clypeus with rather small, sparse punctures; clypeus broad, 
apex somewhat wider than base. Antennae two-thirds length of body 
in female, brown throughout. 

Pronotum: Orange with ivory yellow as follows (light markings not 
sharply delimited) ; in two oblique basal spots; at lateral margin (this 
narrower posteriorly, abruptly wider anteriorly) ; narrowly at anterior 
margin. Orange areas speckled with minute darker spots, densest 
laterally at base, nearly absent medially at base except on median 
line, median line anteriorly without spots. Punctation dual, small 
punctures minute, larger punctures quite small. 

Elytra: Background color ivory yellow, dark markings brown. 
Dark markings of each elytron interconnected, confined largely to 
area bounded by suture to sixth stria at side and from basal limit of 
punctures to apical limit of third to sixth intervals; markings not 
attaining base, lateral margin, or apex; with yellow at base near 
scutellum, at middle of side, in a common spot on second and third 
intervals, and in apical spots on third, fourth, and fifth intervals. 
Each elytron with seven rows of fine, rather dense punctures and a 
series behind humerus, finer apically as usual; fifth row confused 
before apex, sixth row irregular behind humerus; inner and outer rows 
distinct at apex, more or less clearly meeting. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 47 


Ventral surface: Ventral surface and legs orange; with ivory yellow 
on prosternum, mesosternum (plus side pieces), basal median part of 
first abdominal segment, and at sides of first to fifth abdominal seg- 
ments; ivory yellow broad on fifth segment. Anterior margin of 
prosternum in female broadly, not strongly, lobed. Pygidium ivory 
yellow, median line and base narrowly brown, surface rather coarsely 
punctate. Fifth abdominal segment in female with a large, oval, deep 
depression at center. 

Length: 4.2 mm. 

Type pata.—This species is described from a single female specimen 
(USNM type number 69245) with the data, ‘‘Grand Canyon, Arizona, 
June ’27, D. H. Blake.” 

Discusston.—Cryptocephalus contextus is similar to cowaniae; the 
two are separable on the basis of the dark elytral markings. 
In cowaniae, these attain the sides of the elytra just behind the 
middle and before the apex; in conteztus, they do not attain the sides 
of the elytra. The specific name (meaning connected) refers to the 
fact that the dark elytral markings are interconnected. 

C. contextus is also similar to the Central American species patheticus 
Suffrian. The basic elytral pattern is the same; however, the body size 
and extent of the dark markings separate the two. C. conteztus is 
4.2 mm. long, and two specimens of patheticus in the USNM collection 
are 2.8 mm. and 3.0 mm. long. In the two specimens of patheticus, the 
dark elytral markings attain the sides of the elytra; in the single 
specimen of contextus, they do not. 

In addition, this species is quite similar to the illustration and 
description of OC. decemplagiatus Jacoby in the Biologia Centrali- 
Americana (1889, p. 111). I have seen no individuals of the decem- 
plagiatus so have been unable to make a direct comparison. One 
apparent difference is that the pronotum of decemplagiatus is described 
as predominantly brown; that of conteztus is orange. 


Cryptocephalus cowaniae Schaeffer 
Figures 83, 124 


Cryptocephalus cowaniae Schaeffer, 1934, p. 462. 


Pronotum: Dark red or (usually) brown to black, light markings 
creamy yellow to orange. Light markings as follows: at base on each 
side in a rectangular spot; at apex in a larger, roughly square spot; 
at apical margin, broadest at center; in two oblique basal spots, often 
reduced to simple spots, rarely vague or absent, markings rather 
sharply delimited. Punctation dual, larger punctures minute to small. 

Elytra: Dark red or (usually) brown to black, light markings 
creamy yellow to orange. Light markings as follows: an elongate spot 


48 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


at base of scutellar and first intervals; conjoined spots at bases of 
third, fourth, and fifth intervals meeting yellow lateral margin, latter 
spots rarely reduced or absent; an oblique spot at about middle of 
second and third intervals, often reduced or vague, rarely absent; 
lateral margin at base to about middle apically joining an oblique 
lateral spot; two anteapical spots, often reduced or joined; one apical 
spot sometimes reduced. With eight rows of punctures, fifth shortened, 
usually sixth and seventh confused (or only sixth), sixth interrupted 
or reduced at middle; inner and outer rows distinct at apex, usually 
clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in female evenly arcuate, not pro- 
duced; anterior margin in male somewhat produced into a broad lobe. 

Length: 3.7 to 4.8 mm. 

Discusston.—Schaeffer (1933, p. 462) described erect spinelike 
processes at the apex of the prosternum in the male. These are actually 
at the base of the prosternum and appear to be ventral extensions 
of the paired processes normally present in members of this genus. 

The male holotype bears Schaeffer’s identification label and is 
thereon designated as type; it bears USNM type number 69090. 
Fifteen paratypes (three males, twelve females) complete the type 
series; these are all in the U.S. National Museum. All were taken at 
Williams, Arizona, during July by Schwarz and Barber, and evidently 
in the year 1901 (some bear the year of collection, but some do not, 
and included among the latter is the holotype). The days of collection 
are given for all and are the first (the holotype and one female para- 
type), the 14th (one male paratype), the 16th (one male and five 
female paratypes), the 17th (one male and four female paratypes), 
the 18th (one female paratype), and the 28th (one female paratype). 

Schaeffer (1934, p. 462) records the species as being taken on 
Cowania stansburiana Tarr. 

Distrrisution.—In addition to the 16 types, three other individuals 
have been examined, all from Arizona. 


Cryptocephalus cribripennis Leconte 
FiaureE 64 
Cryptocephalus cribripennis Leconte, 1880, p. 200. 


Pronotum: Light red to (usually) dark reddish, light markings creamy 
yellow to orange. Light markings as follows: in two joining, elongate, 
oblique spots at base; entire lateral margin (distinctly narrowed 
medially); at apical margin; markings rather sharply delimited. 
Punctation usually not dual, smaller punctures absent to very 
sparse, larger punctures minute to small; with a distinct, shallow 
impression at each side. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 49 


Elytra: Creamy yellow to orange, punctures and markings red to 
dark reddish. Dark markings as follows: an elongate spot at base of 
first interval (this often joins suture at its apex); elongate spots at 
base, middle, and apex of third interval; a humeral spot; two spots 
behind humerus, one obliquely above and one obliquely below hu- 
merus; a submedian spot; a spot at apex of seventh interval; markings 
usually consistent, sharply delimited, sometimes expanded or reduced. 
Punctures quite large, more or less irregular, sparser than usual, 
generally forming eight evident rows, rows often obscure; rows six and 
seven confused and much reduced; punctures finer apically; inner and 
outer rows distinct at apex, clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in female somewhat or vaguely 
produced into a lobe, usually pointed; anterior margin in male dis- 
tinctly produced into a pointed lobe. 

Length: 4.8 to 6.2 mm. 

Discusston.—There is a possibility that cribripennis is synonymous 
with irroratus Suffrian (1852b, p. 32). I have examined the description 
of trroratus but have not been able to assign the name with certainty 
to specimens in the Central American series of the USNM collection. 
Among specimens in this collection determined as C. irroratus, I find 
four distinct species, one of which matches cribripennis. The other 
three have the dark elytral markings joining to form transverse bands; 
I think it likely that irroratus applies to one of the last three, but to 
which one I cannot determine. 

Collection data refer to specimens as taken on orange trees, on 
cotton, on marsh willow, and on black-eyed peas. 

DistrRIBUTION.—The 64 specimens examined are from southern 
Texas. 


Cryptocephalus cuneatus Fall 
Fieures 11, 51 


Cryptocephalus cuneatus Fall, 1932, p. 24. 


Pronotum: Creamy yellow to very light orange with three broad, 
orange to (sometimes) dark red longitudinal vittae, one median, two 
lateral, these sometimes expanded and joining apically, markings not 
sharply delimited. Punctures dual, larger punctures minute to small. 

Elytra: Each elytron creamy yellow to very light orange with black 
markings, disk sometimes clouded with reddish. Suture more or less 
broadly margined with black, a black mark from humerus to apex of 
seventh interval. With eight rows of punctures, sixth and sometimes 
fifth rows confused, lateral intervals distinctly convex, punctures as 
large and dense as usual, punctures finer apically; inner and outer 
rows distinct at apex and clearly meeting. 


50 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Prosternum: Anterior margin not produced, evenly arcuate in both 
sexes. 

Length: 4.0 to 5.1 mm. 

Distrrisution.—All 15 specimens examined are from Florida. Fall’s 
single male type specimen was from Georgia. 


Cryptocephalus cupressi Schaeffer 
Figures 55, 122 
Cryptocephalus cupresst Schaeffer, 1933, p. 324. 


Pronotum: Creamy yellow with four dark reddish to nearly black, 
longitudinal, sharply delimited vittae, these attaining base but not 
apex; median two nearly parallel-sided, somewhat widest at apical 
third, nearly to quite touching at base; lateral two triangular, widest 
apically, narrowest at base. Punctation dual or not, small punctures 
(when present) extremely sparse, larger punctures very large, coarse 
but smaller and less coarse near margins. 

Elytra: Each elytron creamy yellow with sharply delimited dark 
reddish markings. Dark markings as follows: large diagonal spot 
from base of fourth interval to apex of sutural stria, broadly attaining 
suture, not attaining base or scutellum; a large spot centered just 
behind humerus, not attaining base or side; two paired postmedian, 
medium-sized spots, first centered at apical third of fourth interval, 
second centered at about apical third of seventh stria (latter two 
sometimes narrowly joined); two paired, apical spots, one centered 
before apex of third stria, other centered before apex of seventh stria. 
With eight rows of punctures, sixth and seventh rows confused, 
punctures as large as but generally sparser than usual, those of disk 
more strongly impressed than usual, much finer to apex; inner and 
outer rows distinct at apex, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes distinctly produced 
downward into a blunt or rather pointed lobe, more produced in male. 

Length: 4.7 to 5.7 mm. 

Discusston.—Schaeffer’s four cotypes are in the USNM, three are 
females, one is a male. The single male is hereby designated lectotype 
and is so labeled; it bears USNM type number 69091. The data on the 
lectotype follows: ‘‘N. Orleans, 1.2 La., ex pupa V.” A cotype bears 
essentially the same data as above but emerged on “IV.” One cotype 
bears the following: ‘“‘New Orleans, La., larvae on cypress XII.29.1931, 
adult pupae IV.6.1932”. The other cotype bears: ‘‘New Orleans, 
I.2.1932, on cypress, ex pupa IV.1932, G. P. Engelhardt Coll.” 

DistriBution.—The four type specimens from Louisiana are all 
that have been examined. 





CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 51 


Cryptocephalus defectus Leconte 
Figure 65 


Cryptocephalus defectus Leconte, 1880, p. 201. 
Cryptocephalus nigrovittatus Jacoby, 1880, p. 44. [New synonymy.] 

Pronotum: Light orange throughout, vaguely darker near apex and 
laterally on each side; punctation extremely sparse and minute, not 
distinctly dual. 

Elytra: Light orange with brown markings. Each elytron with dark 
markings as follows: on second stria at base, at basal half of fourth 
interval, on humerus, at apical third of sixth interval, at apex of sixth 
interval, and at middle of eighth stria. With seven rows of punctures 
and a short series behind humerus, no striae confused; fourth interval 
distinctly narrowed at nearly basal half, all intervals distinctly convex; 
punctures finer, as dense as usual, striae finer to apex; inner and outer 
rows distinct at apex and usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in female broadly, {feebly lobed; male 
not seen. 

Length: 3.2 to 3.3 mm. 

Discusston.—Schaeffer (1934, p. 457) listed as synonyms of luteolus 
Newman both defectus and sanford: Blatchley (=sanfordensis Blatch- 
ley, see Clavareau, 1913, p. 182). He stated that he had seen the type 
of defectus and had received notes on the type of luteolus; however, the 
species I interpret as luteolus (=sanfordi) has a reddish thorax; that of 
defectus is described as yellow and not varied. In the USNM collection 
there is a single individual from Florida that agrees with the descrip- 
tions of sanfordi and luteolus and that is clearly distinct from two 
individuals from Texas which agree with the description of defectus. 
When a color sketch of one of the latter individuals was sent to the 
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Dr. Evans informed me that the 
type of defectus agreed with it. On this basis, I remove defectus from 
synonymy with luteolus. 

By its description and illustration, nigrovittatus Jacoby (October 
1880, p. 44) is nearly identical with defectus Leconte (July 1880, p. 
201). The only difference is the extent of the black stripe on the second 
interval of the elytra of nigrovittatus; it is described and illustrated as 
extending past the middle of the interval. In a series of individuals 
from Central America (Finca, Panama, Yepocapa, Guatemala; and 
Almolonga, Mexico) that agree with the description of nigrovittatus, 
however, this vitta is variable in its development. In nine it is as 
described in the original description, in one it is nearly absent, and in 
another it is interrupted in the middle. I find no other characters that 


52 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


would reliably serve to distinguish defectus and nigrovittatus, so I have 
united the two. 
DistrIBuTION.—Both specimens examined are from Texas. 


Cryptocephalus disruptus, new species 


Ficures 100, 125 


General: Body 1.73 times as long as wide; dorsal surface moderately 
shining and without pubescence, most of ventral surface with short, 
sparse pubescence. 

Head: Dull orange, a darker spot on vertex; antennal insertions and 
apical margin of clypeus reddish. Front roughly punctate, punctures 
small to moderate, dense at middle. Clypeus with basal suture obsolete, 
moderately wider apically than at base. Antennae of male about 
two-thirds length of body, dull orange, apical half a little darker. 

Pronotum: With dark markings on a dull orange background. 
Markings dark reddish, not sharply delimited, consisting of four 
longitudinal, subparallel stripes, separated throughout, inner two 
widest at middle, leaving a median light stripe, somewhat outwardly 
arcuate; outer dark stripes broader than inner, broadest behind 
middle, rather narrowed anteriorly; in middle at each side with a 
small, dark red spot. Punctation dual, surface irregularly, finely 
wrinkled, smaller punctures larger than usual, distinct; larger punc- 
tures small, more or less coarse. 

Elytra: Background color creamy yellow; dark markings red, 
punctures black. Each elytron with dark markings as follows: a 
transverse undulate postbasal band from suture to humerus; a small 
subhumeral spot; a moderate-sized postmedian spot from suture to 
fifth stria, lateral to postmedian spot a rather small spot centered on 
seventh stria and touching lateral margin; two small spots near apex, 
one centered just before apex of fourth interval, other centered before 
apex of sixth interval. Punctures primarily confined to dark markings, 
large and distinctly arranged in rows only on dark markings, much 
smaller, very sparse on light areas; punctures on dark markings 
forming seven disconnected rows, these punctures rather smaller 
apically; outer row of punctures distinct at apex, inner row obsolete 
at apex. 

Ventral surface: Ventral surface, legs, and pygidium dull orange 
with reddish evident; prosternum, front coxae, mesosternum, mesepi- 
meron, and first abdominal segment at base with dull yellow, each 
femur ventrally before apex with a yellowish spot. Fifth abdominal 
segment of male at center feebly depressed. Anterior margin of 
prosternum in male evenly arcuate, not produced. 

Length: 4.25 mm. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 53 


Type pata.—The single male individual from which this species 
is described (USNM type number 69246) bears only the datum 
Colorado. 

Discussion.—This species is most similar to bivius and is readily 
distinguished from it. In bivius, the rows of punctures are continuous 
and not interrupted by the light areas; in disruptus, the rows are 
obsolete or absent in the light areas. Also bivius ranges in length from 
4.3 to 6.4 mm.; the one individual of disruptus is 4.25 mm. long. The 
specific name disruptus refers to the disconnected rows of punctures 
of the elytra. 


Cry ptocephalus dorsatus, new species 
Ficures 2, 99, 126 


General: Body 1.7 times as long as wide; dorsal surface shining, 
without pubescense, most of ventral surface with short, sparse, 
whitish pubescence. 

Head: Dull orange, front with moderate-sized punctures; clypeus 
not sharply delimited, short, distinctly broadest apically, with fine, 
sparse punctures. Antennae of male about two-thirds length of body, 
in female about one-half length of body, first five segments dull orange, 
apical six segments dark brown. 

Pronotum: Predominantly dull orange, with vague lighter or 
apparently transparent areas at base, apex, and sides. Punctation 
dual, smaller punctures minute and rather dense, larger punctures 
small, not dense. 

Elytra: Dull creamy yellow to light orange; humerus dark brown to 
black; punctures dark. Each elytron with seven rows of moderate- 
sized, fairly even punctures and one or two punctures behind humerus, 
punctures rather close, smaller to apex; inner and outer rows distinct 
at apex, nearly meeting or meeting. Intervals not or only slightly 
convex. 

Ventral surface: Ventral surfaces and legs dull orange, metasternum 
(especially at side) darker than remainder. Male with anterior margin 
of prosternum broadly produced ventrally into a V-shaped lobe, 
appearing spinelike in lateral view; female with anterior margin of 
prosternum produced ventrally, not as broad or pointed as that of 
male. Fifth abdominal segment at center with a broad, deep, oval pit 
in female, or faintly depressed in male. Pygidium dull orange, with 
rather dense, moderate-sized punctures. 

Length: 4.4 to 5.0 mm. 

Typr pata.—Described from one male and one female taken at 
Alpine, Texas, on August 1, 1949. The female bears the following data: 
“sweeping Erigeron sp. and Gutierrezia microcephala, Alpine, ‘Tx. 


54 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


1-VIII-49, J. L. Ward.” The male holotype is in the CAS collection; 
the allotype is in the USNM collection. 

Discussion.—This species is most similar to c. cerinus, but differs 
in color. In dorsatus, the pronotum is dull orange and the elytra are 
creamy yellow to light orange; in c. cerinus, the dorsal surface is light 
orange throughout. 


Cryptocephalus duryi Schaeffer 
Figures 14, 54, 120 
Cryptocephalus duryi Schaeffer, 1906, p. 230. 


Pronotum: Creamy yellow to light orange, with four rather narrow, 
red to dark red, subparallel, longitudinal vittae, these attaining base, 
nearly attaining apex, sharply delimited, never touching; sculpture 
dual and coarse, larger punctures rather large, smaller punctures larger 
than usual; pronotum in profile more declivous than usual. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to dull light orange, humerus and punctures 
dark red, punctures large, confused, rows evident only at sides and 
apex, numerous punctures transversely joined by red, especially those 
on disk; inner and outer rows of punctures distinct at apex and clearly 
meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male somewhat produced anteriorly 
into a rather pointed lobe, anterior margin in female not or feebly 
lobed. 

Length: 4.5 to 5.6 mm. 

Discussion.—The female holotype and single specimen from which 
the species was described is USNM type number 42306. The printed 
label data are as follows: “Brownsville, Tex. Apr. 12-May 20,” 
written on the label in pencil is the following: “5/5 03.” 

One specimen was taken on a mimosa leaf. 

DisTRIBUTION.—The seven specimens examined are all from 
southern Texas. 


Cryptocephalus egregius Schaeffer 
Figures 17, 60 
Cryptocephalus egregius Schaeffer, 1934, p. 459. 


Pronotum: Dull creamy yellow to nearly orange, with black, 
sharply delimited markings. Dark markings as follows: a broad, 
median, longitudinal spot from base to apex, midline with narrow, 
disconnected spots of yellow; each side of median spot with oval to 
triangular, medium-sized spots, usually narrowly connected with 
median spot; at each side usually with a very tiny black spot. Surface 
sculpture dual or not, smaller punctures usually absent, larger punc- 
tures minute to absent. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 55 


Elytra: Dull creamy yellow to nearly orange with black markings 
sharply delimited. Each elytron with dark markings as follows: three 
medium-sized spots, one centered before base of second stria, one 
centered before apex of second interval, one centered behind middle of 
sixth stria (these spots may be expanded and largely confluent); with 
six small spots, one on suture before apex of sutural stria, one on 
humerus, two behind humerus (one diagonally above, one diagonally 
behind), one at apex of fourth interval, one at apex of seventh interval. 
With eight rows of punctures, usually fifth, sixth, and seventh rows 
confused, sometimes only sixth, punctures as large, a little sparser 
than usual, much finer apically; inner and outer rows distinct at apex 
and usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in female produced ventrally into a 
somewhat pointed lobe; male not seen. 

Length: 6.0 to 6.7 mm. 

Discussion.—The female holotype from Fort Valley, Georgia, col- 
lected by Scott and Fiske is USNM type number 69092. The single 
female paratype is also in the U.S. National Museum; it was taken at 
Calvert, Texas, on “IV.12.07” by C. R. Jones. These two specimens 
represent the type series. 

DistriBution.—Only five individuals have been seen, they are 
from Texas, Arkansas, Louisiana, Georgia, and New Jersey. 


Cryptocephalus fulguratus Leconte 
Figure 67 
Cryptocephalus fulguratus Leconte, 1880, p. 203. 


Pronotum: Dull orange to red, margins usually yellow or at least 
lighter, not sharply delimited; punctation usually dual, smaller 
punctures very sparse to nearly absent, larger punctures minute. 

Elytra: Light creamy yellow to orange, striae and dark markings 
red to (usually) dark red. Dark markings as follows: on base of second 
interval curving to apex of sutural stria; on apex of second stria; at 
base, middle, and apex of fourth stria; behind base, behind middle, 
and on apex of sixth stria; on humerus; behind base at middle of 
seventh stria; above markings reduced to (rarely) nearly absent or 
(more often) transversely joined and forming three undulating bands. 
With seven rows of punctures and a short series behind humerus, sixth 
stria interrupted and joining fifth, latter sometimes also interrupted 
at junction with sixth; punctures as large, dense as usual, finer apically, 
intervals rather to quite convex; inner and outer rows distinct at apex 
and clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male somewhat produced into a 
broad lobe, anterior margin in female feebly produced. 

Length: 3.8 to 5.0 mm. 


56 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Discussion.—This species is similar to but evidently distinct from 
a single specimen from the Monros collection determined as C. austerus 
Suffrian taken at Orizaba, Mexico. In the latter individual, the elytral 
surface is rather depressed by two narrow, transverse, dark bands, 
and the striae are somewhat distorted. This condition does not occur 
in fulguratus. Two additional specimens in the USNM collection (one 
from Mexico, the other from Guatemala) determined as C. rimosus 
Suffrian differ from fulguratus by the above characters and apparently 
are not distinguishable from austerus. 

A single individual is recorded from oak. 

Two of the specimens on hand (both from Sabinal, Texas) are 
uniformly light orange above with very faint indications of the dark 
elytral markings. These markings are more or less distinct in all the 
other specimens. 

DistriBuTIoN.—The 130 specimens examined are from Texas, 
Arkansas, and Kansas. 


Cryptocephalus gibbicollis gibbicollis Haldeman 
Fiaure 79 
Cryptocephalus gibbicollis Haldeman, 1849, p. 252. 


Pronotum: Orange to red, nearly always with two vague oblique, 
yellowish spots at base; lateral and apical margins more or less 
yellowish; yellowish markings often reduced or expanded. Surface 
with dual punctation, larger punctures minute to small. Pronotum in 
profile rather to distinctly more gibbous than usual. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to very light orange with black markings. 
Each elytron with two complete, sharply delimited, black (rarely 
very dark reddish) vittae as follows: from base of second, third, and 
fourth intervals to apex of second interval; from humerus to apex of 
seventh to fourth intervals. With eight rows of punctures, usually 
sixth and seventh rows confused, sometimes only sixth, fifth row often 
abbreviated; punctures as usual in size and density, finer apically; 
inner and outer rows usually clearly meeting at apex; epipleuron 
black throughout. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes somewhat produced 
into a broad lobe. 

Length: 5.2 to 7.1 mm. 

Discussion.—Three individuals from Ashland, Massachusetts, 
have the vittae much narrowed but still complete; they are thus 
nearly intermediate between g. gibbicollis and g. decrescens. 

Label data provide the record “on Kalmia angustifolia.” 

DistrIBUTION.—The 91 specimens on hand are from Maine, New 
Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 57 


Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, Alabama, and 
Louisiana. 


Cryptocephalus gibbicollis decrescens, new subspecies 
Figures 101, 123 


Head: Reddish orange, usually with vague yellow adjacent to eyes, 
antennal segments one to five orange, terminal six brown to black. 

Pronotum: Disk deep orange to reddish. Vague yellowish markings 
present as follows: in two more or less indistinct basal spots; a narrow 
band at lateral margin; a narrow to broad band at apical margin, 
margins narrowly black. Disk produced as in g. gibbicollis. 

Elytra: Background color creamy yellow to light orange; all mar- 
gins narrowly black; dark markings black, frequently with brown or 
reddish borders, variable in development, on one extreme with only 
humerus black, on other with incomplete vitta from base of stria two 
to before apex of interval two (often with base of interval three and 
stria three clouded), and with incomplete vitta from humerus to just 
past middle of interval seven, often also blackish at apex of fourth 
interval. Epipleuron with inner and outer margins brown to black, 
medially brown to yellowish. Rows of punctures as in g. gibbicollis. 

Ventral surface: Form as in g. gibbicollis; ventral surfaces, pygidium, 
and legs nearly uniformly reddish orange, pygidium often with 
yellowish at sides, tarsi often more or less brownish. 

Length: 5.0 to 7.0 mm. 

Tyre pata.—Described from nine individuals with the following 
data: ‘Sherborn, Massachusetts, VII-23-1933, C. A. Frost’’ (male 
holotype, USNM type number 69249, and allotype); “USA, Massa- 
chusetts, Sherborn, 29-VI-1934, Coll. Frost, Monros Collection” 
(two males, two female paratypes); ‘“C. A. Frost, Sherborn, Massa- 
chusetts, VII-23-33, sweeping Kalmia’’ (one female paratype); one 
female paratype from Milford M., Sept. 7-94, collection F. Knab” 
(the M. in the previous data probably refers to Massachusetts) ; 
“Jacksonville, Florida, collection Ashmead” (one female paratype). 
All types are in the U.S. National Museum. 

Discusston.—This subspecies is readily distinguished from g. 
gibbicollis by the color pattern. In g. gibbicollis, the inner vitta of each 
elytron encompasses three intervals at its base, and the outer vitta 
is complete from the humerus to the apex. In g. decrescens, the inner 
vitta is obsolete at the base or covers a single interval, and the outer 
vitta is never complete, at most it extends to just past the middle of 
the elytra. The subspecific name (meaning to diminish or lessen) 
refers to the dark markings of the elytra, which are much reduced from 
the condition in g. gibbicollis. The internal structures of the male 


58 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


genitalia of these subspecies are essentially the same, but in g. gib- 
bicollis the median lobe is noticeably broader apically. 

The male holotype illustrated (fig. 101) is about midway between 
the extremes in the development of the dark elytral markings. 


Cryptocephalus guttulatellus Schaeffer 
FIGuRE 52 


Cryptocephalus guttulatellus Schaeffer, 1920, p. 327. 
Cryptocephalus quatuordecimpustulatus Schaeffer, 1904, p. 226 [not Suffrian]. 

Pronotum: Dull creamy yellow, disk (except broad basal area) 
usually speckled, sometimes clouded with reddish or orange; punctures 
of one size, small, sparse. 

Elytra: Background dull orange to dull reddish, each elytron with 
seven creamy yellow to very light orange spots, more or less oval, 
subequal, generally separated by a little less than half their diameters 
(rarely some touching). Spots centered as follows: one before base of 
scutellar stria, one at base of fifth interval, one at middle of sixth 
stria, one at about middle of second stria, one before apex of third 
stria, one before apex of seventh interval, and one at elytral apex. 
With seven rows of punctures, fifth and sixth rows confused, often 
both interrupted and joining at about middle of elytron; punctures 
varying in size, generally sparser than usual; finer apically; inner and 
outer rows distinct at apex, not joining. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin somewhat broadly produced in both 
S@XeS. 

Length: 2.6 to 3.0 mm. 

Discusston.—A series of specimens from Central America deter- 
mined as C. ocellatus Suffrian (a synonym of subtilis Harold, 1872, p. 
254) appears undistinguishable from guttulatellus, but I have been 
unable to confirm that the series is correctly determined. 

The Central American species C. tesseratus Chevrolat (1834, p. 85) 
is similar in color and pattern to guttulatellus but is larger; it varies in 
length from 4.0 to 5.0 mm. 

Nine cotypes are in the U.S. National Museum and these bear type 
number 42412. The specimen I hereby designate as the lectotype is a 
male and bears Schaeffer’s determination label; the data follows: 
“Ksprza Rech Brownsville Tex. VIII/” Three cotypes (one male, one 
female, and one with the apex of the abdomen eaten by a dermestid, 
but evidently a female by its size) bear the same data as the type. 
Two cotypes bear the data ‘“Esper Rch Brownsville Tex,’ one, a male, 
was taken in “VII,” the other, a female, was taken in “VI.” Three 
additional cotypes bear the following: ‘Brownsville Tex., VI 2” (a 
female) ‘Esp. Ranch Brownsville Tex., V.27” (a female); and ‘“‘St. 
Thomas Brownsville Tex VIII 28” (a male). 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 59 


One specimen was taken on Celtis. 


Disrripution.—All 33 specimens seen (including the types) were 
taken in southern Texas. 


Cryptocephalus guttulatus Olivier 
Fiaures 53, 130 


Cryptocephalus guttulatus Olivier, 1808, p. 815. 
Cryptocephalus lautus Newman, 1840, p. 250. 

Pronotum: Light orange to reddish, basal angle yellowish, often 
with basal oblique spots, lateral and apical margins yellowish or 
lighter. Surface impunctate to very finely, sparsely punctured, 
punctures not dual. 

Elytra: Background black to red or dark orange, each elytron 
with eight nearly subequal, usually oval, creamy yellow to dull 
orange spots. Spots as follows: one centered at base of scutellar 
stria, one centered at base of fifth interval, one centered at base of 
last stria, one centered at middle of third interval, one centered before 
middle of seventh stria, one centered before apex of third stria, 
one centered before apex of eighth interval, and one centered at junc- 
tion of inner and outer stria. Surface sometimes finely, transversely 
wrinkled. With eight rows of punctures, sixth confused and much 
reduced, seventh usually interrupted or somewhat confused; punctures 
as large, dense as usual, finer apically; inner and outer rows distinct 
at apex, usually nearly or quite meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced into a distinct, 
ventrally directed lobe; anterior margin in female with a distinct, 
somewhat less produced lobe. 

Length: 3.9 to 6.0 mm. 

Discusston.—The Central American species tesseratus Chevrolat 
(1834, p. 85) may be synonymous with guttulatus. The only differences 
I find between the USNM series of these two are that the background 
color of guttulatus is often black, in tesseratus it is dark reddish. 
The inadequacy of the tesseratus series (but six specimens, some in 
poor condition) does not allow a reliable conclusion to be drawn. 

Another possible synonym of guttulatus is testudineus Jacoby 
(1889, p. 105). By its description and a specimen in the USNM 
collection from Guatemala City, it seems identical. I have not seen 
an example of rhombeus Suffrian (described as similar to this group 
of species by Suffrian), so I will not make name changes at this 
time. 

Specimens in the collection have been collected on cotton and 
on okra. 

Douglass (1929, p. 8) recorded this species from honey locust. 


60 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


DistriBpuTion.—The 146 specimens in the collection were collected 
in Massachusetts, New York, Maryland, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Virginia, South Carolina, Georgia, Tennessee, Florida, West Virginia, 
Indiana, Wisconsin, Arkansas, Kansas, Texas, and Colorado. 


Cryptocephalus implacidus, new species 
Fiaures 3, 104 


General: Body 1.65 to 1.75 times as long as wide; dorsal surface 
somewhat shining, without pubescence, most of ventral surface with 
short, sparse, whitish pubescence. 

Head: Dull orange to light dull orange, vertex and antennal 
insertions reddish or darker; front with large, coarse, dense punctures; 
clypeus sharply delimited at sides, distinctly broadest at apex; 
antennae of female a little over half as long as body, dull orange 
throughout to brownish apically. 

Pronotum: Dull light orange to dull reddish orange, large punctures 
irregularly darker or reddish; punctation dual, smaller punctures 
minute, moderate in density, larger punctures large, dense, coarse. 

Elytra: Dull light orange to dull reddish orange with vague indica- 
tions of two dark, transverse bands, one behind middle, one before 
apex. Each elytron with nine rows of fairly large, close punctures, 
sometimes occasional punctures out of alignment or rows slightly 
irregular; sixth and seventh rows even throughout to somewhat con- 
fused; punctures slightly smaller at apex; inner and outer rows con- 
fused at apex and not joining, confused punctures at apex obliterating 
intervals. 

Ventral surface: Ventral surface and appendages dull reddish, 
generally with femora, mesosternum, and base of abdomen dull orange. 
Anterior margin of prosternum in female somewhat produced ventrally 
into a rather broad lobe. Fifth abdominal segment at center with a 
broad, deep pit in female. Pygidium dull orange to dull reddish, densely, 
coarsely punctate. 

Length: 4.6 to 5.1 mm. 

Typr pata.—The above description is from three individuals, all 
females. The holotype (USNM type number 69250) was taken at 
Mansura, Louisiana, on March 26, 1910, by Cush (sic) and Hood. 
One paratype was collected at Hockley, Texas, on June 16, 1891, by 
¥. W. Thurow (in USNM). The final paratype is from Leon County, 
Texas and was taken on May 18, 1948, by D. J. Knull (in OSU). 

Discusston.—This species is quite similar to ochraceus. In the latter 
species, elytral striae six and seven are largely to entirely confused, 
and specimens are known only from Florida. In implacidus, elytral 
striae six and seven are even to somewhat confused, and specimens 











CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 61 


are known only from Texas and Louisiana. The specific name refers 
to the coarse punctation of the pronotum. 


Cryptocephalus incertus Olivier 
Fiaure 70 


Cryptocephalus incertus Olivier, 1808, p. 814. 
Cryptocephalus lineolatus Haldeman, 1849, p. 249. 

Pronotum: Orange to red or very dark reddish and usually with 
two oblique basal spots; lateral and apical margins yellowish to light 
orange, not sharply delimited. Punctation dual, larger punctures small 
to rather large, usually not distinctly impressed. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to orange, striae and vittae dark orange 
to red or dark red. Each elytron with a vague to distinct (usually not 
sharply delimited) longitudinal vitta, usually extending from base of 
third and fourth intervals (often diagonally joining suture and lateral 
margin) sometimes reduced to a vitta at basal half of fourth interval 
and apical half of fifth interval or expanded to cloud most of elytron 
with reddish. With seven rows of punctures and a series behind 
humerus, fifth stria sometimes disconnected before apex; punctures 
as large, dense as usual, not to somewhat finer apically; inner and 
outer rows of punctures at apex confused and not meeting. 

Prosternum: Male with anterior margin broadly, somewhat pro- 
duced; female with anterior margin not or faintly produced. 

Length: 2.7 to 4.0 mm. 

Discusston.—Collection notes record specimens from cucumber and 
cranberry. 

Distripution.—A total of 84 specimens have been examined. One 
of these is labeled as from Texas, but this may be in error; the other 
specimens are from New Hampshire, New York, New Jersey, Massa- 
chusetts, Maryland, North Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, and Florida. 


Cryptocephalus insertus Haldeman 


Fiaure 74 


Cryptocephalus insertus Haldeman, 1849, p. 252. 
Cryptocephalus ellipsoidalis Casey, 1884, p. 66. 

Pronotum: Orange to red or brown and usually with two oblique, 
yellowish basal spots, also lateral and apical margins yellowish; 
yellowish markings, when present, not sharply delimited. Punctation 
usually dual, smaller punctures present or absent, larger punctures 
minute to small and rather coarse. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to dull orange, with black to brown markings. 
Each elytron with dark markings as follows: from base of oe 
third, and fourth intervals to apex of second interval, rarely reducec 


313-144—68——5 


62 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


or incomplete, often expanded (especially in male) ; usually with three, 
sometimes two lateral spots, spaced from humerus to apex of seventh 
to fourth vittae, sometimes these enlarged and joining inner, enlarged 
vitta (especially in male), rarely complete, rarely reduced to just 
small humeral and apical spots. With eight rows of punctures, sixth 
row slightly to distinctly confused, seventh row usually moderately 
confused; punctures as large and dense as usual to finer than usual, 
nearly always very distinctly finer to apex; inner and outer rows of 
punctures distinct at apex, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes evenly arcuate, feebly 
produced in some males. 

Length: 3.8 to 5.8 mm. 

Discusston.—I have examined the male type of ellipsoidalis Casey 
(type number 49222 in USNM) and confirmed that it is identical to 
insertus. 

Collection data refer to specimens taken from Desmodium and 
“Comptonia asplenifolia,”’ now Comptonia peregrina (L.). 

Distrisution.—The USNM collection totals 177 individuals from 
New Hampshire, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, 
Pennsylvania, Florida, Louisiana, Kansas, South Dakota, and 
Colorado. 


Cryptocephalus lateritius Newman 
Figure 35 
Cryptocephalus lateritius Newman, 1841, p. 78. 


Pronotum: Creamy yellow to orange, punctures red to dark red, 
red sometimes coalescing, infrequently leaving but tiny patches of 
yellow. Punctation dual, larger punctures large and coarse to very 
coarse. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to orange, each elytron with three vague 
to quite vague, transverse, undulating red to dark red bands; punc- 
tures red, larger and denser than usual, usually forming five discal 
rows, more or less regular (often rather confused or double) and two 
lateral rows, these rather confused to almost completely confused 
throughout; punctures not or somewhat smaller to apex; inner and 
outer rows at apex not evident, entirely confused. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced into a rather broad 
lobe, anterior margin in female not produced. 

Length: 3.7 to 4.5 mm. 

Discussion.—There is considerable variation in the tendency of the 
elytral punctures to align in rows. At one extreme, the punctures are 
almost entirely confused and but one or two rows are faintly indicated. 
At the other extreme (these specimens are from the northern part of 
the range), the scutellar, first five, and last two rows are evident 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 63 


though irregular. The pronotal punctures of a single specimen from 
Georgia are much denser than usual and show a tendency toward 
becoming longitudinally elongate; this is similar to but not nearly as 
pronounced as the condition of the sculpture in schreibersii. In the 
Georgia specimen, the elytral punctures of the disk tend to form 
double rows. This tendency is less pronounced or absent on the other 
seven specimens on hand. 

Collection data provide the records, skeletonizing leaves of Quercus 
virginiana Mill. and Prunus angustifolia Marsh. 

DistrisuTion.—The eight specimens in the USNM collection are 
from Florida, Georgia, and North Carolina. 


Cryptocephalus leucomelas leucomelas Suffrian 
Ficures 15, 58, 127 
Cryptocephalus leucomelas Suffrian, 1852, p. 36. 


Pronotum: Creamy yellow to orange, with four red to brown or 
black, longitudinal, sharply delimited vittae from base to apex, some- 
times narrowly meeting at apex or base. Punctation dual, smaller 
punctures sometimes sparse, larger punctures small to moderate in 
size, sometimes coarse. Profile more declivous than usual. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to orange with red to brown or black markings. 
Each elytron with dark markings as follows: a transverse band at 
basal third, broadly meeting suture before apex of scutellar stria, 
often expanded to humerus and nearly to base; a transverse band just 
behind middle from about fifth stria to suture; humeral and sub- 
humeral spots (latter may join basal transverse marking); a lateral 
spot at about apical third; two apical spots; markings sometimes 
reduced or sometimes expanded and forming three nearly or quite 
complete transverse bands. Punctures larger, sparser, more distinctly 
impressed than usual, finer as usual apically; with eight rows of 
punctures, fifth row sometimes confused, sixth row much reduced, 
confused, seventh row confused, often reduced; inner and outer rows 
distinct at apex, nearly always clearly meeting, infrequently some- 
what confused. 

Prosternum: Male with anterior margin produced into a ventrally 
directed, rather pointed lobe to just somewhat produced ; female with 
anterior margin feebly produced to evenly arcuate. 

Length: 4.0 to 6.0 mm. 

Discussion.—A single specimen from the Monros collection deter- 
mined as C. guatemalensis Jacoby (collected at Presidio, Mexico) is 
very similar to 1. leucomelas. It differs in that the punctures on the 
yellowish areas of the elytra are confused and show little or no tendency 
to align in rows (those on the transverse dark markings are clearly 


64 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


aligned in rows); in l. leucomelas the punctures in the yellowish areas 
are clearly aligned in rows continuous with those on the dark markings. 
Wilcox (1954, p. 384) recorded this species from poplar in Ohio. 
Collection data record specimens from Helianthus tuberosa L., Azalea 
leaf, flowers of Malva sp., ‘Salix presidio,” willow tree, and cotton. 
DisrriputTion.—The U.S. National Museum has 161 specimens 
from Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, 
Alabama, Indiana, Kentucky, Missouri, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Texas, Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona, and 


Utah. 


Cryptocephalus leucomelas trisignatus, new subspecies 


Figure 103 


Head: Creamy yellow; vertex, antennal insertions, clypeus, and 
labrum reddish. 

Pronotum: Background color light orange. Dark markings red to 
deep red, consisting of four longitudinal, complete, subparallel stripes, 
rather sharply delimited and distinctly separated; median two nearly 
straight sided, each just wider than median light stripe they enclose; 
lateral two stripes distinctly wider than inner two, widest near middle. 

Elytra: Background color light orange. Dark markings and punc- 
tures red to deep red, each elytron with markings as follows: behind 
base with a slightly diagonal band, extending from suture laterally to 
extreme side, this usually continuous, sometimes disconnected near 
humerus; with two spots at apex, one centered before apex of third 
stria, other centered before apex of seventh stria; usually also with a 
more or less distinct, small spot at apex of first stria. 

Ventral surface: Ventral surface and legs nearly uniformly reddish. 
With yellow as follows: on prosternum, on front coxae, on meso- 
sternum and mesepimeron, on basal median portion of first abdominal 
segment, and sometimes at sides of abdominal segments. Fifth ab- 
dominal segment of female with a large, oval, deep depression at 
center. 

Length: 4.5 to 4.7 mm. 

TyprE patra.—aAll three specimens are females from Minnesota. The 
holotype bears the data Red Falls, Minnesota, Stoner, July 31-1911”; 
it is USNM type number 69242. One paratype was taken at Hanley 
Falls, Minnesota, by Stoner on August 1, 1911, the other at Olmstead 
County, Minnesota, on “6.97” by C. N. Ainslie and is from the col- 
lection of F. Knab. All type specimens are in the U.S. National 
Museum. 

Discussion.—This subspecies differs from J. lewcomelas in that the 
elytra bear no submedian band and no lateral spots; these are present 











CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 65 


in l. leucomelas. The subspecific name refers to the three distinct 
markings of each elytron. 


Cryptocephalus leucomelas vitticollis Leconte 
Figure 59 
Cryptocephalus leucomelas vitticollis Leconte, 1880, p. 200. 


Pronotum: Creamy yellow to light orange with four orange to red, 
longitudinal, usually sharply delimited vittae from base to apex, 
lateral two on each side often narrowly to broadly joined apically. 
Surface with dual punctation, small punctures sparse, larger punctures 
small to moderate; surface sometimes scabrous and with larger 
punctures obscured and small ones absent. Profile more declivous 
than usual. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to light orange, dark markings orange to 
red and predominating in extent over yellow or orange. Each elytron 
with basic pattern as in l. lewcomelas but much expanded, leaving 
yellow as follows: in a narrow basal strip, in a transverse median 
band (not attaining suture), in a narrow transverse, anteapical spot, 
and in an apical spot. Striae and punctures as in J. lewcomelas. 

Prosternum: As in J. leucomelas. 

Length: 4.2 to 5.0 mm. 

DistrisutTion.—Only nine specimens are in the U.S. National 
Museum, all from Colorado. 


Cryptocephalus lunatus, new species 


Fieures 106, 128 


General: Body 1.8 times as long as wide; dorsal surface shiny, with 
short, fine, whitish pubescence; most of ventral surface with fine, 
fairly dense, whitish pubescence. 

Head: Black; front with fairly dense punctures except on vertex, 
the latter usually somewhat produced; clypeus finely punctate, not 
sharply delimited, broadest apically. Antennae a little longer than 
body in male or about three-fourths length of body in female, dark 
brown to nearly black. 

Pronotum: Black throughout; in lateral view rather gibbous; 
punctation dual, smaller punctures minute and moderate in density, 
larger punctures moderate in size, rather coarse. | 

Elytra: Black, at base narrowly reddish-orange; light marking of 
each elytron in lateral view nearly crescent-shaped, extending from 
suture (or near suture) to side of elytron and posteriorly at side to 
middle of elytron; sometimes (two of four specimens) apex of each 
elytron with small reddish-orange spot. Each elytron with nine rows 
of fine punctures, striae not or very feebly impressed; all rows fairly 


66 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


even or with rows six or seven somewhat irregular; rows of punctures 
very feeble to nearly disappearing at apex; punctures small and sparse; 
inner and outer rows of punctures at apex not clearly meeting. 

Ventral surface: Ventral surface and legs black, tarsi dark brown. 
Prosternum in male with anterior margin produced backward into a 
distinct, pointed process, or prosternum in female with median area 
between coxae somewhat produced into a longitudinal carina. Fifth 
abdominal segment of female with a deep, oval depression at center, 
or in male somewhat depressed. 

Length: 4.7 to 5.4 mm. 

Type pata.—This description is from four individuals, all taken at 
Chisos Mountains, Texas, by D. J. and J. N. Knull. The holotype, a 
male taken on June 26, 1961, the allotype, taken on July 8, 1955, and 
one male paratype, same data as allotype, are in the OSU collection. 
One male paratype, taken June 26, 1961, is in the USNM collection. 

Discussion.—This species is most similar to mucoreus L. 'The two can 
best be distinguished by the extent of the basal reddish spot of the 
elytra. In mucoreus, the spot broadly attains the suture at the center 
and at the side extends past the middle of the elytra; in lunatus, this 
spot does not or just feebly attains the suture and at the side extends to 
but not past the middle of the elytra. The specific name lunatus refers 
to the crescent-like red elytral spot. 


Cryptocephalus luteolus Newman 
FicurE 66 


Cryptocephalus luteolus Newman, 1840, p. 250. 
Cryptocephalus sanfordi Blatchley, 1913, p. 23. 
Cryptocephalus sanfordensis Blatchley, Clavareau, 1913, p. 182 [emendation]. 
Pronotum: Light red, with vague indication of lighter, paired, 
oblique, basal spots; surface sculpture dual, larger punctures minute. 
Elytra: Creamy yellow with punctures and three incomplete vittae 
dark brown. Each elytron with dark markings as follows: at basal 
half and apical tip of second interval, at basal two-thirds and apical 
tip of fourth interval, from humerus to before middle of sixth interval, 
on sixth interval behind middle laterally to seventh stria, and at apex 
of sixth interval; dark markings on intervals sharply delimited by 
striae. With seven rows of punctures and a short series behind hum- 
erus, no striae confused, fifth stria sinuate; punctures a little larger 
than usual and as dense, finer apically as usual; inner and outer rows 
distinct and clearly meeting at apex. 
Prosternum: Male with anterior margin produced ventrally into a 
fairly distinct lobe; female not seen. 
Length: 2.8 mm. 
































CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 67 


Discusston.—Blatchley (1913, p. 23) recorded this species from 
willow. 


Distrisution.—The two specimens I have examined are from 
Florida and Texas. 


Cryptocephalus maccus, new species 


Ficures 5, 105, 129 


General: Body 1.7 to 1.8 times as long as wide; dorsal surface 
distinctly shining and lacking pubescence; most of ventral surface 
with short, sparse pubescence. 

Head: Dull creamy yellow to light orange; vertex, antennal inser- 
tions, clypeus, and labrum plus adjacent areas reddish or dark orange, 
vertex grooved or depressed; front with rather large to small, irregu- 
larly spaced punctures; clypeus sharply delimited, distinctly broadest 
apically. Antennae of male nearly as long as body, dull orange 
throughout. 

Pronotum: Background color light orange to orange. Dark mark- 
ings deep reddish to nearly black, more or less sharply delimited, 
borders often narrowly clouded with reddish; markings consisting of 
four longitudinal, rather broad stripes, plus a moderate-sized oval 
spot on each side, usually narrowly joined to adjacent stripe; inner 
two stripes broadest just beyond middle, not touching, leaving narrow, 
median light stripe; outer two stripes broadest at or near base, some- 
what irregular in form, each usually joining lateral spot at about its 
middle. Punctation dual, smaller punctures minute and sparse, larger 
punctures rather small to moderate, generally irregular in size, rather 
coarse. 


Elytra: Background color light orange to orange. Dark markings 
and punctures deep red to nearly black, markings more or less sharply 
delimited, usually narrowly clouded with reddish. Dark markings of 
each elytron as follows: a moderate-sized, rather irregular spot on 
humerus, nearly attaining both base and lateral margin; a rather 
small to moderate-sized spot at base of second and third intervals 
not attaining basal margin; a small spot at apex of sutural stria; a 
continuous, transverse, more or less undulate band just behind 
middle attaining lateral margin; two moderate-sized spots at apex, 
one centered before apex of third stria, other before apex of sixth 
stria, both irregular in shape and development, sometimes confluent. 
Each elytron with eight rows of punctures or row six much reduced 
and confused, then apparently with seven rows; punctures larger, 
sparser, more irregular than usual, finer apically; punctures tending 
to be denser and more distinctly arranged in rows in darkly pig- 
mented areas; row six confused, reduced, row seven more or less 


68 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


confused, rather reduced; inner and outer rows at apex distinct, 
usually uniting clearly, sometimes with a few confused punctures in 
this region. 

Ventral surface: Ventral surface and legs nearly uniformly reddish. 
With yellow as follows: on prosternum, mesosternum, mesepimeron, 
front coxae, at side of each abdominal segment, and a ventral spot 
before apex of each femur. Prosternum of male with anterior margin 
produced into a broad, arcuate lobe, posterior margin behind each 
coxa produced into a sharp, posteriorly directed spine. Pygidium 
light orange with median stripe and sides reddish; coarsely punctate 
with a more or less distinct, median, raised carina. Fifth abdominal 
segment of male feebly depressed. 

Length: 4.0 to 4.4 mm. 

Typr pATA.—This species is described from four males, all taken 
in Arizona. The data are as follows (all types in USNM): holotype 
(type number 69241), “5 mi. s. Rock Springs, Arizona, VI-24-57 
R. S. Beal’; paratypes, “Hot Springs, Arizona, 26.6 Barber and 
Schwarz”; ‘Sabino Canyon, Arizona, June 19, 1918, 9:30 P.M., 
F. C. Craighead, Prosopis juliflora flowers’; and ‘Sabino Canyon, 
Arizona, August 6, 1959, K. V. Krombein.” 

Discussion.—C. maccus is closely related to bivius and is easily 
distinguished from it. In biviws, the large transverse common dark 
marking of the elytra is before the middle; in maccus, it is behind the 
middle. Also, the lateral spot on each side of the pronotum of bivius 
is small and does not join the adjacent stripe; in maccus, the lateral 
spot is moderate in size and usually joins the adjacent stripe. The 
closest relative of maccus is pseudomaccus, new species; for the differ- 
ences see under the latter species. 

The name maccus is Latin for buffoon, and it was selected because 
of the resemblance of the color pattern of the dorsal surface to the 
face of a clown. 

I have seen an additional six members of this species from the 
Burdette White collection. Three were taken at Toltec, Arizona, one 
at Globe, Arizona, one at San Carlos, Arizona, and the last at Van 
Horn, Texas. These are not paratypes. 


Cryptocephalus merus Fall 
Fiaures 9, 81 
Cryptocephalus merus Fall, 1932, p. 23. 


Pronotum: Dull creamy yellow to orange with dark markings and 
large punctures reddish to brown; dark markings tending to form 
four longitudinal vittae, these indistinct and poorly differentiated or 
indicated only at base; usually with a small, pigmented, coarsely 











CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 69 


punctate spot at each side. Punctation dual, smaller punctures often 
sparse, larger punctures varying widely in size, from minute to large 
and coarse, usually densest and coarsest anteriorly and at sides, most 
dense at lateral spot. 

Elytra: Dull creamy yellow to orange, striae and dark markings 
reddish to dark brown and distinct to (usually) vague, dark markings 
consisting of round to elongate spots. Markings of each elytron as 
follows: one near apex of first interval (vague to absent); one at basal 
fourth of third interval (distinct to vague) ; one at apex of fifth interval 
(distinct to vague); one at apex of seventh interval (distinct and ex- 
panded to vague, reduced); one on humerus (nearly always distinct) ; 
one at middle of eighth interval (distinct to very feebly indicated). 
With eight rows of punctures and a series behind humerus, fifth row 
usually confused, sixth row always confused, sometimes joining fifth 
row; punctures a little larger, denser than usual, not or slightly finer 
apically ; inner and outer rows distinct apically, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced ventrally into a 
distinct, broad lobe, middle of prosternum with a stout, sharp, 
ventrally directed spine, anterior margin in female as that in male, 
but middle of prosternum lacking a spine. 

Length: 3.8 to 4.8 mm. 

Discussion.—A single specimen from Chihuahua, Mexico, deter- 
mined by Monros as. C. taeniata Suffrian is very similar to merus and 
raises the possibility that the two may be synonymous. 

Disrrrpution.—Nine specimens have been examined from Texas 
and Arizona. 


Cryptocephalus mucoreus Leconte 
Fiaures 20, 131 


Cryptocephalus mucoreus Leconte, 1859a, p. 23. 


Pronotum: With fine, silvery pubescence; black throughout; punc- 
tation dual, larger punctures moderate, dense. 

Elytra: With fine, silvery pubescence. Each elytron black, following 
parts orange to red; basal fourth and side to or (infrequently) past 
middle; apex; basal marking, rarely almost attaining apical spot; 
posterior margin of basal marking concave. With nine rows of punc- 
tures, sixth and seventh rows sometimes confused, punctures rather 
small and indistinct, obscured by roughened surface; inner and outer 
rows generally distinct at apex and usually meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male with a large, sharp, downward 
and posteriorly directed spine; anterior margin in female simple or 
with a feeble, longitudinal, median carina. 

Length: 4.2 to 5.5 mm. 


70 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Discussion.—Numerous authors have presented this species as a 
synonym of basalis. Wilcox (January 1953, p. 51) cited it as a valid 
species distinct from basalis and presented the characters which serve 
to distinguish the two. This action, I believe, was correct; however, 
Pallister (May, 1953, p. 28) resynonymized mucoreus with basalis, 
but Wilcox’s treatment of 1954 (p. 382) amounted to a revalidation 
of mucoreus. 

DistRIBUTION.—The 52 specimens on hand are from Texas, Kansas, 
Missouri, and Kentucky. 


Cryptocephalus multisignatus Schaeffer 
FIGuRE 28 
Cryptocephalus multisignatus Schaeffer, 1933. p, 323. 


Pronotum: Dark brown nearly throughout, lateral and apical mar- 
gins lighter; punctation dual, larger punctures small. 

Elytra: Dark brown with vaguely to sharply delimited light orange 
markings on each elytron as follows: a small spot at scutellum; a 
spot at lateral basal half, with inner posterior margin extending to 
but not attaining scutellum; a transverse, anteapical band, not attain- 
ing side or suture; an apical spot. With eight rows of punctures, sixth 
and seventh rows confused; punctures becoming finer apically as usual, 
elsewhere as large and dense as usual; inner and outer rows at apex 
distinct, not quite meeting. 

Prosternum: Male with anterior margin produced ventrally into a 
stout, blunt spine; female not examined. 

Length: 3.9 mm. 

Discussion.—The male holotype (the only type specimen) is in 
the U.S. National Museum and has been assigned type number 69093; 
it was taken in Arizona. It is the only example of this species that has 
been seen, so the extent of variation of the characters referred to in 
the description and key is not known. Schaeffer (1933, p. 323) erred 
in giving the length of his type as 3.5 mm. 


Cryptocephalus mutabilis Melsheimer 
Ficures 76, 77 


Cryptocephalus mutabilis Melsheimer, 1848, p. 172. 
Cryptocephalus dispersus Haldeman, 1849, p. 248. 
Cryptocephalus discoideus Suffrian, 1852b, p. 49. 


Pronotum: Orange to red or black and usually with two elongate, 
yellowish, oblique basal spots; basal margin more or less, lateral mar- 
gin broadly, and apical margin rather narrowly creamy yellow to light 
orange; lighter markings sometimes expanded and predominating; 
light basal markings often reduced to absent, side and apical markings 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 71 


always present; sometimes discal dark area red with margins blackish. 
Punctation dual, larger punctures minute to small. 

Elytra: Dull creamy yellow to very light orange and with orange 
to red or black markings. Each elytron with small oval spots as 
follows: at base of second interval, at base of fourth interval, on 
humerus, before base of eighth stria (sometimes absent), before base 
of sixth stria, and at apex of third and seventh intervals (latter two 
often expanded). Elytron with a large spot from suture behind 
scutellum diagonally to fourth stria to past its middle, then diag- 
onally to or nearly to elytral apex; an elongate spot at side behind 
middle; smaller spots of above pattern (except humeral) often re- 
duced or expanded, large discal spot often expanded and joining other 
markings. With eight rows of punctures, fifth sometimes, sixth always, 
and seventh sometimes confused; punctures as dense but smaller than 
usual, finer apically, often nearly disappearing; inner and outer rows 
distinct at apex, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male somewhat produced ventrally 
into a broad lobe; anterior margin in female somewhat to feebly 
produced into a lobe. 

Length: 4.3 to 6.5 mm. 

Discussion.—In a few specimens (mostly males), the two small 
spots at the base of intervals two and four are confluent and join the 
broad discal spot. This produces a color pattern very similar to that of 
insertus, but in mutabilis there is a small spot on the eighth stria just 
below and behind the humeral spot. In insertus, the eighth stria lacks 
such a spot or is covered by an adjacent, expanded spot. 

Sexual dimorphism is rather marked in the species. The males range 
in length from 4.3 to 5.3 mm., and the dark markings are usually 
black. The females range from 5.3 to 6.5 mm. in length, and the dark 
markings are usually reddish. 

Douglass (1929, p. 9) recorded this species on peanuts. Label data 
cite beating oak, cherry foliage, and on Kalmia. 

DistriBuTIon.—The 268 specimens in the USNM collection are 
from Quebec, Ontario, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Mary- 
land, Pennsylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, West Vir- 
ginia, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, Mississippi, Louisiana, Missouri, 
Iowa, Minnesota, Kansas, Nebraska, and Texas. 


Cryptocephalus nanus Fab. 
Figure 44 


Cryptocephalus nanus Fab., 1801, p. 56. 


Pronotum: Light orange to orange or light reddish, sometimes with 
two vague, lighter, basal, oblique spots. Punctation much reduced , 


a2 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290! 


smaller punctures very sparse to absent, larger punctures minute, 
sparse. 

Elytra: Dark reddish to black, lateral margin below and behind 
humerus and epipleuron vaguely reddish to yellowish. With seven 
rows of regular punctures and a short series behind humerus; punctures 
as large, dense as usual, finer apically; inner and outer rows distinct at 
apex, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin of both sexes produced downward 
into a short, rather broad lobe. 

Length: 2.8 to 3.5 mm. 

Distrisution.—The 12 specimens examined are from Florida, 
Georgia, Alabama, Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, and Mississippi. 


Cryptocephalus notatus notatus Fab. 
FIGuRrE 29 
Cryptocephalus notatus Fab. 1787, p. 83. 


Pronotum: Dark brown to (usually) black, nearly always with a 
bluish tint; punctation dual, larger punctures minute to (infrequently) 
moderate in size and rather coarse. 

Elytra: Dark brown to (usually) black, each elytron with light orange 
markings as follows: a large spot at side from base of fourth stria, 
arching to about middle of elytron at lateral margin (humerus usually 
dark); a large apical spot; basal spot never attaining scutellum or 
apical spot. With eight and sometimes nine rows of punctures, fifth 
row sometimes, sixth nearly always confused, sometimes double, 
seventh row sometimes confused; punctures fine and dense as usual, 
finer apically; inner and outer rows distinct at apex, usually clearly 
meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male with a distinct, sharp, ven- 
trally directed spine; anterior margin in female with a more or less 
distinct, sometimes pointed lobe. 

Length: 3.3 to 4.8 mm. 

Discusston.—Usually there are eight rows of punctures on each 
elytron, and the sixth row is distinctly confused. In some, the punc- 
tures of the sixth row tend to form a nearly double row, and, at the 
extreme, they form two distinct, close rows; in such individuals, there 
are nine rather than eight rows of punctures. 

The male genitalia of n. notatus, n. fulvipennis, n. quadrimaculatus, 
and n. sellatus have been cleared, compared, and found essentially 
identical. 

Distripution.—The 141 specimens in the USNM collection are 
from Ontario, Quebec, Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut, 
Rhode Island, Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 43 


Virginia, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, and Iowa. A series of speci- 
mens bear the label “Canon City, Colorado”; this may be in error. 


Cryptocephalus notatus fulvipennis Haldeman 
Ficures 33, 133 
Cryptocephalus fulvipennis Haldeman, 1849, p. 255. 


Pronotum: As in n. notatus. 

Klytra: Dull light orange to red throughout; punctation similar 
to n. notatus but more frequently with nine rows of punctures. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male rather distinctly produced 
into a more or less pointed lobe; anterior margin in female produced 
into a rather short, broad lobe. 

Length: 4.1 to 4.8 mm. 

Distrisution.—All five specimens on hand are from Florida. 


Cryptocephalus notatus quadrimaculatus Say 
Figure 30 
Cryptocephalus quadrimaculatus Say, 1824, p. 441. 


Pronotum: Color and sculpture as in n. notatus. 

Elytra: Color very similar to that of n. notatus except basal spot 
easily attains scutellum; punctation as that of n. notatus. 

Prosternum: Male with anterior margin produced into a distinct, 
stout, ventrally directed spine; female with anterior margin produced 
into a short, broadly rounded to somewhat pointed lobe. 

Length: 3.6 to 5.5 mm. 

Discussion.—Label data provide the following records: straw- 
berry, collected on blackberry, feeding on dewberry, Rhus, black- 
berry feeding and mating, Prunus angustifolia, bud of apple, straw- 
berry vines, on Ribes sativum Syme (“‘fibes vulgare’), on Betulia 
populifolia Marsh., pear, on peach, on grape. 

DisrriBpuTion.—The USNM collection contains 272 specimens of 
the subspecies from Canada, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, 
Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, 
Delaware, Virginia, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina, 
Georgia, Tennessee, Alabama, Ohio, Illinois, Wisconsin, South 
Dakota, Iowa, Arkansas, Kansas, Montana, Minnesota, Colorado, 
Idaho; and Utah. Blatchley (1924, p. 53) recorded this subspecies 
from Florida. 


Cryptocephalus notatus sellatus Schaeffer 
FicurE 31 
Cryptocephalus notatus sellatus Schaeffer, 1933, p. 322. 
Pronotum: Color and sculpture as 7. notatus. 


74. U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Elytra: Color and basic pattern similar to n. notatus, but basal spot 
always attaining scutellum and apical spot joining latter at about 
sixth to eighth intervals; punctation similar to that of n. notatus. 

Prosternum: Male with anterior margin produced downward into 
a sharp, distinct spine; female with anterior margin produced down- 
ward into a pointed lobe. 

Length: 3.6 to 5.1 mm. 

Discusston.—Three female cotypes are in the U.S. National Mu- 
seum. The specimen bearing Schaeffer’s determination label has the 
data ‘‘Tex.’’ and is hereby designated lectotype; it is assigned USNM 
type number 69094. The pins of each of the two cotypes have a black 
strip of paper but no collection data. In the original description, the 
collection data are given as ‘‘New Braunfels, Texas, (O. Dietz).” 

Collection information includes mating and feeding on willow, 
damaging strawberries, on blooming live oaks, and on Quercus sp. 

Distripution.—The 81 individuals in the USNM collection are 
from Pennsylvania, Indiana, Nebraska, Kansas, South Dakota, 
Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Utah, Minnesota, Quebec, and Manitoba. 


Cryptocephalus obsoletus obsoletus Germar 
Figures 78, 134 


Cryptocephalus obsoletus Germar, 1824, p. 559. 
Cryptocephalus ornatus Suffrian [not Fabricius], 1852, p. 229. 


Pronotum: Dull light orange to red, usually bearing indistinct 
light markings in two oblique basal spots, and with lateral and 
apical margins light orange to yellowish; pronotum sometimes uni- 
colorous or with light markings somewhat expanded. Punctation dual 
or surface finely alutaceous and smaller punctures completely ob- 
scured, larger punctures moderate to large, rather coarse, often rather 
elongate. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to dull orange (punctures often dark) 
usually with two longitudinal vittae, orange to dark reddish, some- 
times black in part, vague to rather distinct but not sharply delim- 
ited. Vittae of each elytron from bases of second, third, and fourth 
interval to apex of second interval and from humerus to apex of fourth 
to eighth intervals; inner vitta rarely black at base, outer vitta some- 
times black at base and apex to nearly black throughout; rarely with 
no trace of vittae. With nine rows of punctures, fifth to eighth rows 
crowded, sixth and seventh usually somewhat confused; punctures 
often larger, nearly always more distinctly impressed than usual, 
finer apically; intervals, especially at sides, distinctly convex; inner 
and outer rows quite distinct at apex, always clearly uniting. 














CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 5 


Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced downward into a 
strong, stout, blunt spine; anterior margin in female produced down- 
ward into a rather short, pointed lobe. 

Length: 4.3 to 6.0 mm. 

Discussion.—Collection data record specimens from Ascyrum stans 
Michx. leaf, on cucumber, on tomato leaves, on lima bean foliage, on 
okra foliage, and on Hypericum fasciculatum Lam. blossoms. 

DistRiBuTIoN.—The 114 specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
collection are from Florida, Georgia, Alabama, South Carolina, North 
Carolina, Virginia, Louisiana, and Mississippi. 


Cryptocephalus obsoletus indistinctus, new subspecies 


Fiaure 107 


General: Body stout, 1.6 times longer than wide; dorsal surface 
rather shining, lacking pubescence; ventral surface with very short 
and sparse, yellowish pubescence. 

Head: Dull orange with yellowish near eyes and on clypeus to dull 
orange throughout; front with moderate-sized punctures; clypeus 
rather sharply delimited, more or less concave, distinctly broadest 
apically. Antennae over two-thirds length of body in male, or over 
half length of body in female; usually with basal five segments dull 
orange, apical segments brown to dark brown. 

Pronotum: Dull orange throughout, sometimes lighter or yellowish 
as follows: at base in two vague oblique spots, narrowly at side, 
narrowly at apex. Punctation dual, smaller punctures minute, moder- 
ate in density, indistinct, larger punctures moderate in size and 
density, rather coarse, longitudinally elongate. 

Elytra: Dull orange throughout, two intervals at side of each elytron 
more or less yellowish; humerus usually dark reddish; punctures a 
little darker than remainder; with indistinct to obsolete indications of 
darker longitudinal stripes on intervals two, three, six, seven, and 
eight. Each elytron with nine rows of moderate-sized, rather close 
punctures; rows six and seven rather to distinctly confused; punctures 
smaller toward apex; inner and outer rows distinct at apex and nearly 
or quite meeting. 

Ventral surface: Ventral surface and legs predominantly dull orange, 
lighter than remainder at center of prosternum, on mesosternum, and 
on first abdominal segment at center; metasternum mostly or partly 
blackish. Both sexes with anterior margin of prosternum produced 
ventrally into a distinct, pointed spine. Fifth abdominal segment at 
center with a deep, oval pit in female, or normal to faintly depressed 
in male. Pygidium dull orange, coarsely, densely punctate. 

Length: 3.9 to 4.3 mm. 


76 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Type pata.—aAll four specimens were taken at Wrentham, Massa- 
chusetts, on July 9, 1947, by B. E. White. The male holotype, the 
allotype, and a male paratype are in the CAS collection. A single male 
paratype is in the U.S. National Museum. 

Discussion.—This subspecies is distinguishable from 0. obsoletus 
by the development of the prosternal spine and on the basis of color. 
In o. obsoletus, the female bears a short, broad spine; the male has a 
broad, pointed spine. In o. indistinctus, both sexes bear an elongate, 
pointed spine distinctly longer than in either sex of 0. obsoletus. Also, 
o. obsoletus bears two vague to distinct, longitudinal dark stripes; in o. 
indistinctus, these are vague to obsolete. In addition, 0. obsoletus is 
known only from Virginia to Florida and Louisiana, and 0. wndistinctus 
is known only from Massachusetts; finally, 0. obsoletus ranges in length 
from 4.3 to 6.0 mm. and o. indistinctus is 3.9 to 4.3 mm. long. The male 
genitalia of o. indistinctus are essentially the same as the illustrations 
for those of o. obsoletus. 


Cryptocephalus ochraceus Fall 
FiGuRE 36 
Cryptocephalus ochraceus Fall, 1932, p. 25. 


Pronotum: Dull creamy yellow with large punctures red, disk ir- 
regularly clouded with red; punctation dual, larger punctures large, 
coarse. 

Elytra: Dull creamy yellow but with striae, humerus, and irregular 
lateral spots reddish. With nine more or less regular rows of punctures, 
these often with a puncture or two misplaced, often confused apically, 
rows six, seven, and eight confused; punctures as large and dense but 
more distinctly impressed than usual, only slightly finer apically; 
inner and outer rows at apex obscured by confused punctures, not 
meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in female evenly arcuate; male not 
examined. 

Length: 5.1 mm. 

Discussion.—The above description is from a single female taken 
at Capron, Florida. 


Cryptocephalus pallidicinctus Fall 


Cryptocephalus pallidicinctus Fall, 1932, p. 21. 


This is the only described North American species I have not seen 
during this work. Following is Fall’s original description: 
Moderately robust. Head black, a quadrate post-clypeal area, a smail spot 


posteriorly adjacent thereto, and the entire inner border of the eyes narrowly 
whitish yellow. Antennae black. 











CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO th 


Prothorax orange red, the extreme apical edge pale yellow, the basal edge 
very narrowly blackish; surface sparsely feebly and very finely punctate. 

Elytra black, with narrow whitish yellow basal and lateral margin which at 
apex does not quite reach the sutural angle; striae moderately impressed, nearly 
as in sangutinicollis, the sutural not reaching the middle of the elytra, 6th very 
widely interrupted medially, 7th dislocated at basal third. 

Entire upper surface polished and strongly shining. Pygidium coarsely 
punctate, obtusely carinate at middle in basal third. Body beneath black: 
prosternum whitish yellow, with moderate cuspiform lobe in front, the hind 
angles with erect spiniform processes tipped with black. 

Length: 4 mm.; width: 2.3 mm, 

Discusston.—The single male specimen from which Fall described 
the species was taken at Palm Springs, California. 


Cryptocephalus pinicola Schaeffer 
Figure 25 
Cryptocephalus pinicola Schaefier, 1920, p. 326. 


Pronotum: Black throughout, nearly always with a bluish tint; 
punctation dual, larger punctures minute to moderate in size and 
coarse. 

Elytra: Dark brown to (usually) black, usually with a bluish tint. 
With light orange to orange or light reddish markings on each elytron 
as follows: from fourth or fifth stria to side and posteriorly not quite 
to middle, marking usually nearly square, sometimes reduced and 
with humerus black, sometimes a little expanded and attaining middle 
of elytron; a large apical spot sometimes present, usually reduced to 
completely absent. With nine rows of punctures, or with row six or 
seven much reduced, then evidently with eight rows; fifth sometimes, 
sixth and seventh always confused, one of latter two may be reduced; 
punctures as large, dense as usual, distinctly finer at apex; inner 
and outer rows at apex distinct, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Male with anterior margin produced downward into 
a distinct, sharply pointed spine; female with anterior margin pro- 
duced downward into a rather short, pointed lobe. 

Length: 3.3 to 5.1 mm. 

Discusston.—A collection note refers to a specimen taken on 
flowers of Ceanothus fendleri Gray (‘“Caenothus fendlerv’). 

Five cotypes are in the U.S. National Museum and bear type num- 
ber 42410. The specimen with Schaefier’s determination label, a male, 
is hereby designated lectotype. It bears the label information “Carr’s 
Peak, Huach Mts., VII, Ariz., on pine 9000 ft.” Two cotypes, one 
female and one male, bear the same data except that the label of the 
latter does not include the last line. Another female cotype is from 
the above locality but was taken on “VII.10.” The final specimen 
bearing a museum cotype label, a male, bears collection data not 

313-144 686 


78 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


given in the original description. The information is ‘Palmerlee 
Cochise Co. VI Ariz.’’ Schaeffer’s statement that two of the specimens 
bear the data ‘‘beaten from pine”’ is in error. 

DistrinuTIoN.—The USNM collection has 81 specimens from 
Arizona, New Mexico, Utah, and Colorado. 


Cryptocephalus pseudomaccus, new species 


Figures 108, 132 


General: Body 1.7 to 1.8 times as long as wide; dorsal surface 
shining, without pubescence, most of ventral surface with short and 
sparse, whitish pubescence. 

Head: Creamy yellow, vertex, clypeus, labrum, and antennal inser- 
tions reddish (in one specimen entire head more or less reddish) ; front 
with moderate-sized punctures; clypeus rather sharply delimited at 
base and sides, distinctly broadest apically, rather concave. Antennae 
about three-fourths length of body in male or over half as long as 
body in female; reddish, basal segments more or less orange. 

Pronotum: Background color creamy yellow to light orange; with 
four broad, dark reddish, sharply delimited, longitudinal vittae, also, 
a rather small, dark reddish, isolated spot present on each side; vittae 
extending from base to apex, inner margins of two median vittae 
nearly parallel, other margins outwardly arcuate. Punctation dual, 
smaller punctures minute, not dense, larger punctures small to moder- 
ate in size and a little coarse. 

Elytra: Background color creamy yellow to light orange, punctures 
and markings dark reddish. Dark markings on each elytron as follows: 
a moderate-sized spot on humerus, a small spot below and a little 
behind humerus; a small spot behind humerus (much reduced in 
allotype and paratype); a small spot behind the preceding; a small 
spot near base of third interval (much reduced in paratype, absent in 
allotype), a moderate-sized to small spot at suture before middle; 
behind middle a large, wide, transverse band, this attaining fifth row 
of punctures, lateral to this a moderate-sized spot attaining margin; 
at apex two moderate-sized spots, outer smaller. Each elytron with 
first five rows of punctures fairly even and distinct, rows at side 
(except last) reduced and confused, seven or eight rows may be 
counted; punctures moderate in size, not close, smaller to apex as 
usual; inner and outer rows distinct and usually clearly meeting 
at apex. 

Ventral surface: Most of ventral surface and legs orange or red. 
Following parts yellowish to orange: prosternum at center, anterior 
coxae, mesosternum and side pieces, first abdominal segment at center, 
each segment at side, sometimes also fifth abdominal segment at center. 
Anterior margin of prosternum normal to feebly produced into an 
arcuate lobe in male or not produced in female. Fifth abdominal seg- 











CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 79 


ment at center with a deep, oval pit in female or fifth segment feebly 
depressed at center in male. Pygidium longitudinally carinate at cen- 
ter, red to orange at base and on carina, with yellowish spots on each 
side near apex. 

Length: 4.0 to 4.2 mm. 

TypE DATA.—This description is from three individuals taken at 
Globe, Arizona, by Parker. The holotype (male, in California Academy 
of Sciences) was taken on April 16, 1934 on Acacia greggii, the allotype 
(also in California Academy of Sciences) bears the following data 
“July V-11-1934”; a male paratype was taken on April 16, 1934 on 
Acacia greggit and is in the USNM collection. 

Discussion.—The species is quite similar to maccus and can be 
distinguished in the basis of the submedian elytral spot. In maccus, 
this spot is undulate and attains the lateral margin; in pseudomaccus, 
it is not undulate and does not attain the lateral margin. 


Cryptocephalus pubicollis Linell 
Figure 24 
Cryptocephalus pubicollis Linell, 1897, p. 480. 


Pronotum: With silvery pubescence; black throughout; punctation 
dual, larger punctures moderate in size, dense, and distinctly impressed. 

Elytra: Dark brown to black, each elytron with orange to reddish 
humeral marking extending from base of second stria diagonally to 
past middle at side. With nine rows of punctures, rows six and seven 
nearly always confused or one or the other much reduced; punctures 
as large, dense as usual, much finer at elytral apex; inner and outer 
rows of punctures more or less distinct at apex, usually not clearly 
meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male with a large sharp spine 
directed diagonally backward; anterior margin in female produced 
into a broad, sometimes pointed lobe. 

Length: 5.0 to 6.0 mm. 

Discussion.—All three members of the type series (two females, 
one male) are in the U.S. National Museum and bear type number 
1308 (not 1307 as cited in the original description); these specimens 
were taken in Arizona by Morrison. The single male I hereby designate 
as the lectotype and have so labeled it. 

Disrripution.—All 14 specimens examined are from Arizona. 


Cryptocephalus pubiventris Schaeffer 
FIGURE 32 
Cryptocephalus pubiventris Schaeffer, 1920, p. 326. 


Pronotum: Nearly uniformly dark brown to black; punctation dual, 
larger punctures small to moderate and rather coarse. 


80 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Elytra: Dark brown to black; each elytron usually with orange to 
red markings as follows: a basal spot attaining suture and usually 
attaining middle of elytron at side, an apical spot, a basal spot often 
attaining apical spot at side of elytron, light markings infrequently 
expanded and leaving only anteapical dark spot, or even with elytron 
entirely light. With nine (sometimes evidently eight) rows of punc- 
tures, rows five to eight crowded and sometimes confused, rows six 
and seven usually confused, one or the other often much reduced; 
punctures as large, dense as usual, finer at elytral apex; inner and 
outer rows distinct at apex, usually clearly uniting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male strongly produced into a 
pointed lobe; anterior margin in female produced into a broad, pointed 
lobe. 

Length: 5.0 to 6.3 mm. 

Discussion.—The two cotypes are in the U.S. National Museum; 
both bear the data “Huach Mts. VII.29 Ariz.” and bear the type 
number 42411. One is a male, the other a female; I hereby designate 
the male as lectotype. 

In a single specimen, the light elytral markings are expanded, 
leaving only a spot of black; in another individual, the elytra are 
entirely light. These individuals may be deserving of subspecific 
rank, but the small series on hand (10 individuals) does not provide a 
reliable indication of the variation in this species. 

A series of specimens in the U.S. National Museum from Mexico 
and Honduras determined as C. militaris Suffrian is very similar to 
pubiwentris. They differ in that the dorsal surface (except the orange 
markings) 1s usually distinctly bluish or greenish, the orange markings 
at the apex of the elytra are often reduced or absent, and the basal 
orange spot never attains the apical spot when the latter is present. 

A single specimen from Mexico determined as C. smithi Jacoby is 
quite similar to pubwentris except that the basal spot does not quite 
attain the suture. 

Distrrrpution.—The ten specimens I have examined are all from 
Arizona. 


Cryptocephalus pumillus Haldeman 
FIGuRE 69 


Cryptocephalus pumilus Haldeman, 1849, p. 249. 
Cryptocephalus pseudolus Suffrian, 1858, p. 373. 

Pronotum: Dull yellowish to (usually) dull orange, disk usually 
more or less clouded with light to dark brown; punctation dual, larger 
punctures moderate to rather large in size, often coarse. 

Elytra: Dull yellowish to (usually) dull orange, humerus more or 
less dark, often with vague to distinct brown markings at middle of 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 81 


base and at middle before apex, basal spot sometimes extending to 
middle of elytron on second and fourth intervals. With seven 1098 of 
punctures and a short series behind humerus, sixth row sometimes 
slightly confused, punctures a little smaller, finer than usual, distinctly 
finer to apex; inner and outer rows usually distinct at apex, often 
clearly meeting, punctures sometimes obsolete at apex. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes evenly arcuate. 

Length: 2.0 to 2.7 mm. 

Discussion.—All five specimens from Virginia (apparently the 
northernmost part of the range) bear rather distinct dark markings. 
Specimens from other parts of the range (including Florida) rarely 
have markings that are as distinct. 

The concavity of the fifth abdominal sternite of the female is less 
developed in this species than is usually the case. 

DistriBnuTiIon.—The USNM collection of the species totals 52 
individuals from Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, Louisiana, and 
Virginia. 

Cryptocephalus quadruplex Newman 
FicuREs 22, 23 


Cryptocephalus quadruplec Newman, 1841, p. 78. 
Cryptocephalus quadriguttulus Suffrian, 1852b, p. 65. [New synonymy.] 

Pronotum: Dark brown, to (usually) black; infrequently with a 
faintly bluish luster; punctation dual, larger punctures minute to 
small, sometimes coarse. 

Elytra: Dark brown to black, each elytron with light orange to 
orange markings as follows: at base from third stria to side and pos- 
teriorly to middle of elytron, often nearly square, this sometimes 
reduced and with humerus dark, sometimes with inner posterior angle 
produced toward (but not attaining) suture; with a moderate-sized 
spot at apex. With eight or nine rows of punctures, fifth sometimes, 
sixth and seventh usually confused (one of latter two often much 
reduced, thus leaving eight rows) ; punctures rather larger, sparser than 
usual, much finer to apex; inner and outer rows usually distinct at 
apex, often clearly meeting, punctures at apex sometimes obsolete. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male with a distinct, usually sharp, 
ventrally directed spine; anterior margin in female evenly arcuate to 
somewhat produced into a broad, sometimes pointed lobe. 

Length: 2.9 to 4.0 mm. 

Discussion.—C. quadriguttulus until now has been ranked as a 
subspecies of quadruplex, and the two subspecies have been separated 
on the basis of the relative size of the basal spot of the elytra. Leconte 
(1880, p. 200) described the basal spot of quadruplex as small, re- 
duced, and a little wider behind; that of quadriguttulus was described 


82 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


as much larger and reaching the middle of the sides of the elytra. 
Schaeffer (MS. key) described the humeral spot in quadruplex as 
small and scarcely wider apically and in that of quadriguttulus as 
larger and obliquely widening toward the apex. In the USNM collec- 
tion, there are over 400 specimens previously determined as quadru- 
plex or quadriguttulus. These series show considerable variation in 
the development of the basal elytral spot. Within the eastern and 
middle parts of the range of the specimens, I find continuous inter- 
mediates between individuals representing the extremes in develop- 
ment of the basal spot. I have synonymized quadriguttulus because 
these color differences are not consistent and intermediate forms are 
numerous. At one extreme of development, the spot is within the basal 
one-third of the elytra, and its inner margin borders the fifth interval. 
At the other extreme, the spot is within the basal half of the elytra, 
its inner margin is diagonal at its base, joins the fourth stria, and 
apically attains the middle of the second interval. Most of the in- 
dividuals with the basal spot reduced are from the New England 
States (New York, Massachusetts, Rhode Island) but some extend 
to Michigan, Wisconsin, and Illinois. None of these individuals bear 
labels indicating they were collected in the westernmost part of the 
range (Iowa, Nebraska, Kansas). The specimens from the western 
part of the range have the spot at about its maximum size. In these 
individuals, the inner margin of the basal spot is nearly always 
straight. Individuals from other parts of the range that have a large 
spot often have the inner margin arcuate, and the markings thus 
are similar to those of b. binominis. 

Douglass (1929, p. 8) recorded this species from Rhus glabra L. 

Distrisution.—The USNM collection has a total of 403 individ- 
uals from Ontario, New Hampshire, Connecticut, Rhode Island, 
Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Maryland, Penn- 
sylvania, Virginia, North Carolina, Alabama, Georgia, Kentucky, 
West Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, North 
Dakota, Arkansas, Missouri, Louisiana, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, 
Montana, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and Texas. 


Cryptocephalus quercus Schaeffer 
FiagurE 45 
Cryptocephalus quercus Schaeffer, 1906, p. 232. 
Pronotum: Dull light orange to orange, disk usually vaguely 
darker; punctation usually dual, larger punctures minute to blending 
with small punctures, latter sparse. 


Elytra: Dull creamy yellow to light orange, with striae, humerus, 
and dark markings more or less reddish. Each elytron with two vague 











CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 83 


to distinct transverse, undulating bands, first at basal third, second 
just behind middle; bands often extending side to side, usually very 
vague or incomplete at about middle. With nine rows of punctures, 
rows six, seven, and eight more or less confused, sometimes entwined 
or abbreviated, latter two rows often interconnected; punctures as 
large, dense as usual, finer at elytral apex; inner and outer rows 
distinct at apex, often clearly meeting, sometimes disconnected. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes produced ventrally into 
a distinct, broad lobe. 

Length: 5.0 to 6.7 mm. 

Discusston.—Two female specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
bear the red museum cotype labels and the type number 42309. One 
bears the data “Palmerly Cochise Co., VII.24 Ariz.,” the other speci- 
men has the data “Huach Mts. VII.12 Ariz.” In the original descrip- 
tion the locality of collection is given only as Huachuca Mountains, 
Arizona; Schaeffer made no mention of the number of specimens from 
which he described the species. Types of other of Schaeffer’s species 
(as s. simulans and umbonatus) bear the locality of collection as 
Palmerly, Cochise County, Arizona; the locality of collection in their 
original descriptions is given as Huachuca Mountains. The type 
specimen of quercus bearing the data ‘““Huach Mts.” I hereby designate 
lectotype. 

Distrisution.—The six specimens examined are all from Arizona. 


Cryptocephalus sanguinicollis sanguinicollis Suffrian 
Ficure 41 
Cryptocephalus sanguinicollis Suffrian, 1852b, p. 78. 


Pronotum: Orange to light or deep red throughout; punctation 
dual, larger punctures minute to small, often coarse. 

Elytra: Dark brown to (usually) black throughout; with eight rows 
of punctures, fifth sometimes, sixth and seventh nearly always con- 
fused, latter two rows sometimes reduced; punctures as large, dense 
as usual, much finer at elytral apex; inner and outer rows usually 
distinct at apex, often clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male distinctly produced downward 
into a more or less pointed lobe; anterior margin in female produced 
into a more or less distinct lobe. 

Length: 3.2 to 4.9 mm. 
Discusston.—One specimen in the collection was taken from Purshia 
tridentata DC. (‘‘Pursnia tridentata”). 

Beller and Hatch (1932, p. 137) record this species as mainly 
occurring on Saliz, but also on blackberries, roses, strawberries, wild 


licorice, and prunes. 


84 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Distripution.—The 131 specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
are from California, Nevada, Utah, Idaho, and Washington. 


Cryptocephalus sanguinicollis nigerrimus Crotch 
FiGureE 42 
Cryptocephalus nigerrimus Crotch, 1874, p. 78. 


Pronotum: Dark brown to black throughout, sometimes with 
reddish at sides; punctation as in s. sanguinicollis. 

Elytra: Dark brown to black throughout; punctation as in s. 
sanguinicollis. 

Prosternum: As in s. sanguinicollis. 

Length: 3.5 to 4.5 mm. 

DistrrputTion.—The eleven specimens examined are all from 
California. 

Cryptocephalus schreibersii Suffrian 
FicurEs 8, 34 


Cryptocephalus rugicollis Haldeman, 1849, p. 258 [preoccupied]. 
Cryptocephalus schreibersii Suffrian, 1852a, p. 288. 

Pronotum: Dull orange to dull red, usually with basal and apical 
margins narrowly and lateral margins more broadly lighter; surface 
with coarse, dense, longitudinal wrinkling at side becoming large and 
elongate or simple punctures, minute punctation sometimes visible. 

Elytra: Dull creamy yellow to dull orange with humerus and 
punctures darker; usually with no markings, sometimes with three 
vague to rather distinct, more or less reddish, transverse, undulating 
bands. With nine rows of punctures, often with punctures not confused, 
sometimes with rows five and/or six and seven somewhat confused, 
adjacent striae of rows five to nine sometimes interconnected; punctures 
usually larger, denser than usual, finer at elytral apex; inner and outer 
rows at apex usually distinct, often clearly meeting, sometimes ob- 
scured by confused punctures and not meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced into a short, broad, 
more or less pointed lobe; anterior margin in female feebly produced 
into a broad lobe. 

Length: 3.0 to 4.5 mm. 

Discusston.—Collection data record specimens from Pinus and 
pitch pine. 

DistrrBuTion.—The 70 specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
are from Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, 
North Carolina, South Carolina, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Mis- 
sissippi, Pennsylvania, and Michigan. 

Wilcox (1954, p. 383) recorded the species from Ohio. 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 85 


Cryptocephalus simulans simulans Schaeffer 
Figure 47 
Cryptocephalus simulans Schaeffer, 1906, p. 231. 


Pronotum: Disk usually orange and clouded with brownish or 
black, varying to black with two oblique elongata light basal spots and 
with apical and lateral margins broadly creamy yellow to light orange; 
with a small coarsely punctate dark to black spot on each side. Punc- 
tation usually dual, small punctures sparse, larger punctures on disk 
minute to small, distinctly larger at side. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to light orange, each elytron with brown to 
black, usually distinct markings as follows: on sutural stria; on second 
interval, complete to broadly interrupted; on base, middle, and apex 
of fourth stria; on humerus, this joining a more posterior spot on 
sixth and seventh intervals; on sixth and seventh intervals behind 
middle; at apex of seventh interval. With eight rows of punctures, 
fifth sometimes, sixth and seventh always confused, sixth often much 
reduced; punctures as large, dense as usual, finer at elytral apex; 
inner and outer rows at apex distinct, usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in female produced downward into a 
broad, distinct lobe; male not examined. 

Length: 5.4 to 6.3 mm. 

Discussion.—There are two female cotypes in the U.S. National 
Museum with type number 42307. The data are as follows: “Palmerly 
Cochise Co. VII.25 Ariz.”’ and ‘“Palmerly Cochise Co. VI.21 Ariz.”; 
I hereby designate the former as lectotype. in the original description, 
the locality of collection is given as Huachuca Mountains, Arizona. 
Schaeffer gives the months of collection as June, July, and August, 
but I find that none of his specimens in the USNM collection were 
collected in August. 

DistripuTion.—All five specimens in the USNM collection are 
females and were taken in Arizona. 


Cryptocephalus simulans conjungens Schaeffer 
Ficures 49, 138 


Cryptocephalus simulans conjungens Schaeffer, 1954, p. 460. 


Pronotum: Red to dark red, light markings creamy yellow to light 
orange; usually with two elongate, oblique, light basal spots (some- 
times broadly joined, more often much reduced to nearly absent) ; 
lateral margin rather narrowly light; apical margin narrowly light. 
Punctation as in s. simulans. . 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to light orange, dark markings red to brown 
or nearly black, pattern as that of s. simulans except stripe on second 


86 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


interval often reduced but not completely interrupted. Punctation as 
in s. simulans, except punctures darkly pigmented, usually larger. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes produced ventrally into 
a distinct, broad, rather pointed lobe. 

Length: 5.1 to 6.5 mm. 

Discussion.—The male holotype and five male and one female 
paratypes are in the U.S. National Museum; the former bears type 
number 69095. The data on these seven specimens follows: ‘“‘Brewster 
Co., Tx., Chisos Mts., VI, 10-12-08, Mitchell and Cushman Coll.” 

The Mexican species maculipennis Suffrian is similar to s. conjungens. 
They differ in that the humeral and posthumeral spots of the elytra of 
s. conjungens unite to form a pipe-shaped spot; those of maculipennis 
do not meet or join to form an elongate spot. Also maculipennis has 
a small subhumeral spot; s. conjungens does not. The maculipennis 
series consists of ten specimens. 

Collection records list the host as Salvia, and Salvia vinacea Wooten 
& Stanley. 

DisTrinuTION.—The 27 specimens in the USNM collection are all 
from Texas. 


Cryptocephalus simulans eluticollis Schaeffer 
Ficure 48 
Cryptocephalus simulans eluticollis Schaeffer, 1934, p. 460. 


Pronotum: Orange to light orange with a dark red spot at each side 
and two elongate, oblique basal spots; broad lateral margin and 
narrow apical margin distinctly to somewhat lighter; margins some- 
times vague. Punctation much as that of s. simulans but larger punc- 
tures a little larger, coarser. 

Elytra: Light orange, markings dark red to brownish, much as 
those of s. simulans, usually more vague and less developed; apical 
spot on second interval rather vague to absent. Punctation as that of 
s. simulans. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes produced ventrally into 
a distinct, broad rather pointed lobe. 

Length: 5.0 to 5.8 mm. 

Discussion.—The three type specimens are in the U.S. National 
Museum and were taken at Hot Springs, Arizona, by Barber and 
Schwarz, the male holotype on ‘21.6’ and one male, one female 
paratypes on ‘‘28.6.”” The holotype has been assigned number 69096. 

By its description and illustration, the Mexican species C. forrera 
Jacoby (1889, p. 106) seems closely related to s. eluticollis (if not 
synonymous with it). A specimen in the collection determined by 
Monros as forreri is nearly identical with s. conjwngens. I believe that 








CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO SF 


an examination of the type of forreri is needed to establish its relation 
to the subspecies of simulans. 


Distrisution.—The six specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
are all from Arizona. 


Cryptocephalus snowi Schaeffer 
FieureE 63 
Cryptocephalus snowi Schaeffer, 1934, p. 461. 


Pronotum: Red to dark red, light markings creamy yellow to light 
orange, rather sharply delimited. Light markings as follows: two 
elongate, oblique basal spots that are narrowly joined; a broad lateral 
margin (narrowed by an arm of central dark area) ; and a narrow apical 
margin. Punctation dual, larger punctures minute to small; at side 
with an irregular depression. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to light orange, dark markings and punc- 
tures dark red, sharply delimited. Dark markings of each elytron as 
follows: on entire second interval, on fourth interval interrupted once 
before apex, at basal third of sixth and seventh intervals (including 
humerus), with anteapical and apical spots on seventh interval; and 
a basal spot on eighth stria. With eight rows of punctures (could be 
interpreted as seven) sixth and seventh rows interrupted medially, 
both more or less confused, sixth much reduced; punctures a little 
larger than usual, finer to apex; inner and outer rows distinct at apex, 
usually clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes produced into a slight 
lobe. 

Length: 4.8 to 5.4 mm. 

Discusston.—Two female type specimens are in the U.S. National 
Museum labeled, “Douglas Ariz. Aug. F. H. Snow.” Though neither 
bears Schaeffer’s determination or any indication by him as to which 
he intended to be the type, one has a museum type label, and the other 
a museum paratype label. I accept the former as the holotype and 
have assigned it type number 69079. The paratype bears the addi- 
tional data “San Bernardino Ranch 3750 ft.”’ The original description 
mentions the type and paratype in Schaeffer’s collection and para- 
types deposited in the Kansas University; it is not known how many 
specimens are in the latter series. 

Disrrisution.—The six USNM specimens are from Texas, New 
Mexico, and Arizona. 

Cryptocephalus spurcus spurcus Leconte 
Ficures 91, 135 
Cryptocephalus spurcus Leconte, 1859, p. 84. 
Pronotum: Orange to reddish, often clouded with blackish, especially 


88 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


basally each side; usually with two basal oblique spots; lateral and 
apical margins vaguely lighter. Punctation dual, smaller punctures 
minute and dense, larger punctures very small to (infrequently) 
rather small and coarse. 

Elytra: Orange to reddish, second, fourth, and sixth intervals us- 
ually wholly or in part vaguely to distinctly darker to nearly black; 
with seven distinct and even rows of punctures and a short series be- 
hind humerus; punctures fine and dense, often a little larger than usual, 
usually finer to apex; inner and outer rows distinct to apex, nearly or 
quite meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced ventrally into a 
distinct, more or less pointed lobe; anterior margin in female produced 
ventrally into a broad, sometimes pointed lobe. 

Length: 4.0 to 6.0 mm. 

Discussion.—B. E. White (1937, p. 112) recorded this species on 
Isocoma sp. 

Distrinution.—The U.S. National Museum has 29 specimens; 
they are from California, New Mexico, and Texas. 


Cryptocephalus spurcus vandykei B. E. White 
FIGuRE 92 
Cryptocephalus spurcus vandyket B. E. White, 1937, p. 112. 


Pronotum: Background color light orange (infrequently yellowish), 
usually with discal and lateral brown to black markings, not sharply 
delimited, quite variable in development. At one extreme, pronotum 
black and only lateral and apical margins light; at other extreme, with 
basal and lateral brownish markings. Punctation dual, smaller punc- 
tures minute and moderate in density, larger punctures small and not 
coarse to moderate and rather coarse. 

Elytra: Background color light orange, infrequently yellowish, with 
brown to (usually) black vittae on second, fourth, and sixth intervals, 
variable in development. At one extreme, with vittae brownish to 
black and apex of first, and bases of second and third vittae lighter. 
At other extreme, with dark vittae expanded, in most areas not 
sharply delimited, with only following areas light: bases of sutural and 
first intervals, basal half of fifth interval, most of seventh interval 
(clouded below humerus), and base of marginal interval; apical half of 
third, fifth, and marginal intervals clouded with brownish to blackish. 
With seven rows of fine, close, generally regular punctures and a short 
series behind humerus; fifth and sixth rows often a little irregular to 
somewhat confused; punctures smaller to apex as usual; inner and 
outer rows distinct at apex to a little irregular, usually meeting. 

Ventral surface: Prosternum and mesosternum and (sometimm) 
abdomen dull orange and often clouded with blackish; metasternues 














CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 89 


usually light at center, dark to black at side; metepisternum dark 
brownish to (usually) black; abdomen usually black, with sides, apex, 
and center at base more or less light; legs irregularly dull orange to 
irregularly light to dark brownish, sometimes yellowish evident; 
anterior margin of prosternum in male produced ventrally into a 
V-shaped lobe, that in female produced into a broadly U-shaped lobe. 


Length: 4.2 to 5.5 mm. 

Discussion.—Two paratypes of this subspecies are in the U.S. 
National Museum, and I have seen a third paratype from the Burdette 
White collection. Of those in the USNM collection, one is a male, the 
other a female; both bear the following data, ‘‘Carpintaria, California, 
VII-2-36, Isocoma venetus vernoniodes, B. E. White collector.” The 
third paratype from the B. E. White collection (in the California 
Academy of Sciences) is a male and has the same data as above. 

In addition to the specimens enumerated, I have seen ten from Utah 
(eight from St. George, Pine Valley, Mt. Carmel, Beaver Valley, 
Bellevue, ““Bucksk. Valley,” and Cedar City) and California (two from 
Santa Cruz) which I cannot definitely assign to this subspecies. They 
differ in that the pro- and mesosterna are predominantly black or 
dark and the legs are irregularly dark brown to completely black. The 
color of the dorsal surface shows the same pattern and variation as 
that of spurcus vandykei. More complete series may show the advisa- 
bility of recognizing these as a new subspecies of spurcus, a move which 
I do not now feel justified in making. 

A single specimen in the USNM collection from Parada, Mexico 
determined as C. semimarginatus Jacoby is similar to s. vandykei but 
lacks the dark vitta present on the second elytral interval of s. vandykev. 

DistripuTion.—The 19 specimens I have seen are from California, 
Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and British Columbia. 


Cryptocephalus striatulus Leconte 
Ficure 38 
Cryptocephalus striatulus Leconte, 1880, p. 204. 


Pronotum: Dull light orange, sometimes vaguely clouded with 
blackish; surface usually alutaceous, punctation not or obscurely dual 
(small punctures usually not visible), larger punctures quite large and 
coarse. 

Elytra: Dull light orange, sometimes vaguely to distinctly clouded 
with blackish (no pattern evident). With nine rows of even, never 
confused punctures (excepting those of apex); punctures a little 
larger, denser than usual, finer at elytral apex; inner and outer rows 
usually distinct at apex, sometimes clearly meeting, often obscured by 
confused punctures and not meeting. 


90 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes not produced, evenly 
arcuate. 

Length: 2.0 to 2.4 mm. 

Discussion.—The concavity of the fifth abdominal segment of the 
female is not as well developed in this species as in other members of 
the genus. 

DistrisuTion.—The 27 USNM specimens are from Rhode Island, 
Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, Delaware, Pennsylvania, 
District of Columbia, and Iowa. Leconte’s type specimens were from 
Illinois and Virginia. Wilcox (1954, p. 383) recorded this species 
from Ohio. 


Cryptocephalus texanus Schaeffer 
Figure 61 
Cryptocephalus texranus Schaeffer, 1933, p. 323. 


Pronotum: Light orange with four broad longitudinal dark red to 
black vittae, rather sharply delimited, not, or narrowly touching. 
Punctation usually dual, smaller punctures sparse to absent, larger 
punctures small to moderate and somewhat coarse. 

Elytra: Light orange, each elytron with six dark red to black mark- 
ings, basal two largest, outer four smaller and subequal. Dark markings 
of each elytron as follows: first spot at basal portions of intervals two, 
three, and four, and extending along interval two to nearly middle 
of elytron, often attaining suture at this point; second spot centered 
just behind humerus, smaller than inner spot; anteapical spots centered 
behind middle of interval four and behind middle of interval seven; 
apical spots centered at apex of fourth and seventh intervals; markings 
often somewhat expanded or reduced. With seven rows of punctures 
(in some apparently eight), rows five and six confused (when appar- 
ently eight rows, five, six, and seven confused); punctures usually 
pigmented, usually larger, always denser than usual, finer to apex; 
inner and outer rows distinct at apex, usually clearly meeting. 

Posternum: Anterior margin in female feebly to somewhat produced 
ventrally into a lobe; male not examined. 

Length: 5.0 to 5.8 mm. 

Discusston.—Three female type specimens are in the U.S. National 
Museum; one bears Schaeffer’s determination label and is thereon 
designated as type. I have accepted this specimen as the holotype and 
assigned it type number 69098 (though a museum notation refers 
to the other two specimens as cotypes). All three specimens bear the 
label data “N. Braunfels Tex.” 

DistriputTion.—The five USNM specimens (including the types) 
are all from Texas. 





— SSS 





CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 9] 


Cryptocephalus tinctus Leconte 
Figure 37 


?Cryptocephalus fasciatus Say, 1824, p. 437. 
Cryptocephalus tinctus Leconte, 1880, p. 203. 


Pronotum: Light orange to reddish (sometimes clouded with 
darkish), sometimes with margins and scattered areas yellowish, 
punctures often more darkly pigmented. Usually with dual punc- 
tation, smaller punctures often obscure to very sparse, larger punc- 
tures quite large, coarse. 

Elytra: Light orange, each elytron usually with three vague to 
rather distinct, darker orange to reddish, transverse, undulating bands. 
Dark bands arranged as follows: one basal, one behind middle, one 
apical and narrow, often bands expanded and nearly meeting. With 
nine sometimes slightly irregular rows of punctures, occasionally rows 
six and seven confused; punctures a little larger, denser than usual, 
slightly finer to apex; inner and outer rows obscured at apex by 
confused punctures. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced into a short, usually 
pointed lobe; anterior margin in female not produced to feebly, 
broadly produced. 

Length: 2.8 to 4.5 mm. 

Discussion.—C. fasciatus has long been considered a possible 
synonym of Jateritius, but unfortunately the description of fasciatus 
does not allow it to be placed with certainty. The locality of collec- 
tion was given by Say as the Konza River, Missouri; this fits more 
closely with the distribution of tinctus (quite similar morphologically 
to lateritius) than it does with the distribution of lateritivs. On that 
basis, I consider it more likely a synonym of tinctus than lateritius. 
C. lateritius is known only from Florida, Georgia, and North Caro- 
lina; see below for the distribution of tinctus. 

Distrrpution.—The USNM collection has 28 specimens from 
Massachusetts, New Jersey, New York, District of Columbia, Penn- 
sylvania, North Carolina, Virginia, South Carolina, Iowa, and Kansas. 


Cryptocephalus triundulatus, new species 


Figures 110, 137 


General: Body 1.7 times as long as wide; dorsal surface rather 
shining, elytra less so than pronotum; dorsal surface without pubes- 
cense; most of ventral surface with short, sparse pubescence. 

Head: Front and clypeus creamy yellow, an inverted V from vertex 
to antennal insertions and labrum reddish; front with moderate- 
sized, rather coarse punctures; clypeus with basal margin obsolete, 


92 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


lateral margins rather distinct, broad, somewhat broader apically 
than at base. Antennae in female over half length of body, in male 
about three-fourths length of body; basal two to five segments orange, 
remainder blackish. 

Pronotum: Deep orange to red, usually with two vague, yellowish 
spots at base; lateral margin narrowly to rather broadly yellowish, 
this narrowly interrupted by red at middle; apical margin narrowly 
yellowish. Punctation dual, smaller punctures minute, larger punctures 
small, not dense. 

Elytra: Background color creamy yellow to light orange; dark 
markings brown to black, rather sharply delimited; each elytron 
with three transverse, dark, undulate bands, all broadly confluent 
with suture, first centered at basal third, attaining neither base nor 
lateral margin, second centered behind middle, attaining lateral 
margin, third centered before apex, not attaining lateral margin. 
Each elytron with seven rows of punctures, usually with an incom- 
plete row between fifth and sixth; fifth and sixth rows usually con- 
fused; punctures small, dense as usual, finer to apex; inner and outer 
rows distinct at apex and clearly meeting. 

Ventral surfaces: Ventral surface and legs orange to light reddish, 
legs brownish apically; with yellowish on prosternum, mesosternum, 
mesepimeron, middle of first abdominal segment at base, and sides 
of abdominal segments. Anterior margin of male prosternum feebly 
produced into a broad, arcuate lobe or in female not produced and 
evenly arcuate. Pygidium yellowish apically, with median line, sides, 
and basal half orange or reddish; with a feeble, median carina; coarsely 
punctate. Fifth abdominal segment in female with a large, oval, deep 
depression at center as usual or in male feebly depressed. 

Length: 4.0 to 4.4 mm. 

Typr pAta.—The male holotype bears USNM type number 69243 
and the data ‘Tucson, Arizona, Wickham, August 4, Wickham col- 
lection 1933.” The allotype bears the data ‘‘on catclaw 15 mi. N. of 
Presidio Tx. 29.4.47 J. H. Russell.’”” The single female paratype has 
the following: ‘‘Aug. 5-7 Tucson, Arizona, Wickham, Wickham col- 
lection 1933.”’ All types are in the U.S. National Museum. 

Discussion.—The species is most similar to cowaniae and can be 
distinguished from it by the elytral pattern. In cowaniae, the dark 
elytral markings are mutually confluent lateral to the elytral suture; 
in this species, they are not confluent (first and second bands) or 
meet only at the suture (second and third, sometimes first and sec- 
ond). The specific name refers to the three undulate bands of the 
elytra. 


























CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 93 


Cryptocephalus trivittatus Olivier 
Fiaures 10, 50 
Cryptocephalus trivittatus Olivier, 1808, p. 824. 
?Cryptocephalus lizus Newman, 1840, p. 250. 
Cryptocephalus vitlatus Haldeman, 1849, p. 250 [preoccupied, original spelling 
vitatus]. 

Pronotum: Creamy yellow to light orange, with three rather broad, 
more or less distinct, longitudinal, red to nearly black vittae ; median 
vitta broadest at its middle, lateral two broadest at their base. Puncta- 
tion usually dual; surface often alutaceous, obscuring smaller pune- 
tures; larger punctures small to moderately large and coarse. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to light orange, usually with red to nearly 
black markings as follows: at basal fourth of third interval (often 
reduced to absent), at middle of fifth interval to apex; entire sixth and 
seventh intervals from base to apex (sometimes reduced, rarely indi- 
cated only at base). With eight rows of often pigmented punctures; 
sixth and seventh rows confused; punctures often a little larger, denser 
than usual, finer at elytral apex; inner and outer rows at apex distinct, 
uniting clearly. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in both sexes not produced, nearly 
evenly arcuate throughout. 

Length: 3.3 to 4.3 mm. 

DistriputTion.—The 43 individuals in the U.S. National Museum 
are from Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island, New York, New 
Jersey, Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, Florida, Alabama, II- 
linois, Iowa, and Texas. A single specimen represents the ‘Texas 
record; it is from College Station; this record could be in error. 


Cryptocephalus trizonatus Suffrian 
FicurE 19 
Cryptocephalus tricinctus Suffrian, 1852, p. 34 [preoccupied]. 
Cryptocephalus trizonatus Suffrian, 1858, p. 372. 

Pronotum: Light orange with a transverse, sharply delimited, red 
to nearly black band, pointed on each side, nearly or quite attaining 
lateral margin. 

Elytra: Light orange, each elytron with two broad, transverse 
bands and apical tip red to dark red; dark bands sharply delimited, 
leaving usually narrower orange bands at base, middle, and before 
extreme apex. With seven or eight rows of pigmented punctures, 
fourth to eighth rows often reduced, especially within median orange 
band; punctures larger, sparser than usual, finer at elytral apex; inner 
and outer rows distinct at apex, clearly meeting. 

313-144-687 


94 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290, 


Prosternum: Anterior margin in male rather distinctly produced 
into a usually pointed lobe; anterior margin in female rather weakly 
produced into a broad lobe. 

Length: 3.0 to 4.6 mm. 

Discussion.—In my opinion, Jacoby (1889, p. 108) has, at least in 
part, misapplied the name trizonatus. In the discussion, he mentions 
that the thoracic band in some specimens is connected with the base by 
a narrow streak on each side, and the illustration (Table 3, figure 8) 
is of such an individual. I believe that this represents a species similar 
to but distinct from trizonatus, because in our Central American series, 
I find individuals that agree with this description that are consistently 
different from trizonatus in this character, and this character shows no 
indication of being variable. I am unable to determine whether this 
species is described. 

A single collection note refers to a specimen taken on “‘Anacua.” 

DisTRIBUTION.—The 45 specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
are all from Brownsville, Texas, 


Cryptocephalus umbonatus Schaeffer 
Figure 68 
Cryptocephalus umbonatus Schaeffer, 1906, p. 232. 


Pronotum: Light orange to red completely or in part, disk often 
more darkly pigmented; punctation dual, larger punctures small to 
moderate and coarse. 

Elytra: Light orange to orange, humerus and striae red to black, 
with no markings. With eight rows of punctures (rarely with seven) 
fifth and seventh rows more or less confused, sixth row quite con- 
fused; punctures denser, more distinctly impressed than usual, a little 
finer to apex; inner and outer rows distinct, usually clearly uniting at 
apex. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male strongly produced into a 
pointed, ventrally directed lobe; anterior margin in female produced 
into a short, broad lobe. 

Length: 4.0 to 6.0 mm. 

Discussion.—Five cotypes are in the U.S. National Museum (one 
male, four females) and all bear the type number 42308; they were 
taken at Palmerly, Cochise County, Arizona. The single male (col- 
lected in July) bears Schaeffer’s determination label and is hereby 
designated as lectotype. Three of the remaining types were taken in 
July, one on July 15; the other two bear no exact date. One type was 
taken on June 14. The original description gives the locality of collec- 
tion as Huachuca Mountains, Arizona. 

In the types and in many of the other specimens on hand, the 
elytra are waxy yellow, and the striae black and strongly contrasting 


























CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 95 


with the background. In nearly half the other specimens, however, 
the elytra are rather to quite orange, and the striae partly to com- 
pletely dark reddish and less strongly contrasting with the background. 
At the extreme, the elytra match the orange color of the pronotum. 


Disrripution.—All the 46 specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
are from Arizona. 


Cryptocephalus vapidus, new species 


Figures 111, 136 


General: Body 1.75 to 1.80 times as long as wide; dorsal surface 
shining, lacking pubescence; most of ventral surface with short, sparse, 
whitish pubescence. 

Head: Dull light orange, antennal insertions darker orange, front 
evenly, moderately, densely punctate; vertex shallowly grooved or 
depressed; clypeus sharply delimited, distinctly broadest apically. 
Antennae nearly as long as body in male, or nearly two-thirds as long 
as body in female; dull light orange. 

Pronotum: Dull light orange, with generally distinct, fine, darker 
speckling which is absent basally at center, anteriorly on each side, 
and at apex. Punctation dual, smaller punctures minute and sparse, 
larger punctures small to very small, not coarse. 

Elytra: Dull light orange; each elytron with distinct to vague indi- 
cations of two dull reddish, transverse, undulate bands; humerus dull 
reddish; punctures dark reddish. Each elytron with nine even and 
distinct rows of close, fairly large punctures; rows seven and eight 
behind humerus nearly always interrupted and joining each other; 
punctures distinct to apex, somewhat smaller apically; inner and 
outer rows at apex distinct and clearly meeting. 

Ventral surface: Ventral surface and appendages dull light orange, 
apices of femora light; metasternum reddish. Anterior margin of 
metasternum in male broadly produced ventrally into a V-shaped 
pointed lobe; anterior margin in female broadly produced ventrally 
into a blunt lobe. Fifth abdominal segment in female at center with a 
deep oval depression, or fifth segment feebly depressed in male. 

Length: 3.5 to 4.8 mm. 

TyrE pata.—The species is represented by 57 individuals, all t aken 
by D. J. and J. N. Knull in the Chiricuhua Mountains of Arizona, 
xcept for one from the Patagonia Mountains of Arizona. The male 
holotype (taken on August 7, 1959) and the allotype (taken on July 
27, 1953), are in the OSU collection. The dates on the paratypes and 
their numbers are as follows: VI-15-39 (one male), VI-27—-49 (one 
male), VII-20-53 (one male, one female), VII—22-53 (one male), 
VII-27-53 (two females), VIII-3-55 (Patagonia Mts., one female), 


96 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290: 


VII-24-—55 (one male, one female), VII-29—55 (two males, one female), 
VII-17-57 (one female), VIJ-27-57 (one male, one female), VII-2-59 
(four males, four females), VII-9-59 (five females), VII-23-59 (one 
female), VII-30—-59 (one male, one female), VIIJ-7—59 (four males, 
five females), VIII-15-59 (one female), VII-3-61 (one female), 
VII-7-61 (one female), VIJ-5-61 (one female), VII-5-61 (one male, 
one female), VIJ-18—61 (one female), VIJ-22-61 (one male, one fe- 
male), VII-29-61 (one male), VIII-2-61 (two females), VIII-6-61 
(one female), VIII-18-61 (two males). Most of the specimens are in 
Ohio State University, but the last five are in the U.S. National 
Museum. 

Discussion.—The species is similar to the description of C. 0b- 
scuripennis Jacoby (1880, p. 54) described from Guatemala. In 
vapidus, the antennae are orange throughout; those of obscuripennis 
are described as having the terminal segments black. The name 
vapidus (meaning dull) refers to the body color of this species. 


Cryptocephalus venustus venustus Fab. 
Ficures 86, 139 


Cryptocephalus venustus Fab., 1787, p. 79. 
Cryptocephalus flaccidus Suffrian, 1852, p. 239. 

Pronotum: Orange to dark red, nearly always with two light, 
oblique basal spots, lateral and apical margins vaguely lighter, gener- 
ally creamy yellow to light orange; light markings and margins never 
sharply delimited; punctation dual, larger punctures small to moderate 
in size, always coarse. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to light orange, each elytron with two dark 
red to (usually) black, nearly always distinct vittae from base of 
second, third, and fourth intervals to apex of second interval and 
from humerus to apex of fourth to seventh intervals; infrequently 
dark markings vague, reduced, or interrupted, rarely somewhat ex- 
panded. With nine rows of punctures (sometimes apparently eight), 
rows five to eight crowded, one or more often confused or reduced; 
punctures as large, dense as usual, finer at elytral apex; inner and 
outer rows distinct at apex, nearly always clearly meeting. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in male produced ventrally into a 
distinct, stout spine; anterior margin in female produced into a broad, 
short, pointed lobe, often spinelike. 

Length: 4.1 to 6.0 mm. 

Discussion.—The series of v. venustus before me contains the male 
of v. simplex and probably also the male of v. ornatulus (see notes 
under these subspecies). The single specimen I know to be a male of 
v. simplex (collected in copula), I find to be indistinguishable from 

















CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 97 


males of v. venustus; I have recognized no males of v. ornatulus but 
think it quite likely that it is also nearly or quite identical to v. venustus. 
Cleared male genitalia of v. venustus, v. cinetipennis, v. hamatus, and 
v. simplex have been compared and found to be essentially identical. 
A few individuals have the elytra (exclusive of the dark vittae) 
clouded with reddish; these are connected with the normal condition 
by intermediates. 


One specimen was taken on Sapium sebiferum Rayb. (“Sapium 
sebicerum’’). 

The essentially sympatric distribution of the subspecies of venustus 
is disturbing. Obviously the situation is at variance with generally 
held views regarding the nature of subspecies. Temporal factors or 
behavior differences, however, might interpose a degree of reproductive 
isolation between the populations treated here as subspecies. In the 
cases of v. ornatulus and v. simplex, in which only females are known 
to exhibit the distinctive color patterns, sex-linked allelomorphism 
may be involved. Only experimental studies will completely clarify 
these problems. In the absence of such investigations, no certain 
conclusions can be reached concerning the significance of the differences 
in the color pattern in venustus. Although recognizing that the present 
arrangement is not satisfactory, I prefer to retain the names as 
subspecies. Appropriate changes can be made at such time as solid 
evidence indicates the need for a different treatment. 

Distrisution.—The U.S. National Museum contains a series of 
316 specimens taken from Manitoba, Quebec, Connecticut, Mass- 
achusetts, New York, New Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, 
North Carolina, Florida, Tennessee, Kentucky, West Virginia, Ohio, 
Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, South 
Dakota, Kansas, Iowa, Nebraska, Minnesota, Colorado, and Texas. 
A single specimen has California as the locality of collection; likely 
this is in error. 


Cryptocephalus venustus cinctipennis Randall 


Figure 84 


Cryptocephalus cinctipennis Randall, 1838, p. 45. 


Pronotum: Color similar to v. venustus but with light markings more 
frequently absent; punctation as in v. venustus. 

Elytra: Disk dark red to (usually) black; marginal interval and 
often adjacent interval in part creamy yellow, usually to apex, but 
sometimes only at side; disk sometimes more or less yellowish at 
base and/or near scutellum; punctation as in v. venustus. 

Prosternum: as in v. venustus. 

Lenetu.—4.1 to 5.2 mm. 


98 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Distrisution.—The 85 specimens in the U.S. National Museum 
are from Manitoba, Connecticut, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, 
New York, Maryland, Illinois, Ohio, Michigan, Wisconsin, Missouri, 
Mississippi, Iowa, Kansas, Nebraska, and Colorado. 


Cryptocephalus venustus hamatus Melsheimer 
Figure 85 
Cryptocephalus hamatus Melsheimer, 1848, p. 173. 


Pronotum: Color as v. cinctipennis; sculpture as v. venustus. 

Elytra: Eighth and marginal intervals creamy yellow. Dark mark- 
ings variable, basically as a v. venustus in which dark markings of 
each elytron expand and meet each other or suture or both; at one 
extreme, with discal markings as v. venustus, but those normally 
light areas creamy yellow and clouded with reddish; at other extreme, 
disk entirely dark, base, suture, and apex distinctly or vaguely yellow- 
ish; striae as v. venustus. 

Prosternum: As in v. venustus. 

Length: 4.0 to 5.5 mm. 

Discusston.—This is the most poorly differentiated of the recog- 
nized subspecies of venustus. Usually there is a scutellar and/or 
second diagonal band of yellow on each elytron. Rarely is one of these 
complete; usually one or the other is incompletely or weakly indicated. 
There is nearly a continuous range of intermediates between this 
subspecies and v. cinctipennis. In v. cinctipennis, the entire elytral 
disk is usually black. I am taking a conservative approach in letting 
v. hamatus stand as is. 

DisTripution.—There are 24 specimens in the U.S. National Mu- 
seum, and they are from Massachusetts, New York, New Jersey, 
Maryland, Virginia, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Wisconsin, Iowa, South 
Dakota, and Colorado. Douglass (1929, p. 8) recorded this subspecies 
from Kansas. 


Cryptocephalus venustus ornatulus Clavareau 
FIGURE 87 


Cryptocephalus ornatus Fabricius, 1798, p. 106 [preoccupied]. 
Cryptocephalus ornatulus Clavareau, 1913, p. 194. 

Pronotum: Orange to dark red, lateral and apical margins lighter or 
yellowish, sometimes with two vague, oblique light basal spots; 
sculpture as in v. venustus. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to light orange, each elytron with dark red 
to black markings as follows: entire second interval, base of fourth 
interval (latter two often joined), at side three subequal spots, one on 
humerus (always present, rarely expanded or reduced), middle of 

















CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 99 


eighth interval (often expanded or reduced, rarely absent), at apex of 
fourth interval (often expanded to reduced or absent). Striae and 
punctures essentially as v. venustus but less frequently with confused 
or reduced rows. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin in female as that of v. venustus; male 
not recognized (likely as in male of v. venustus). 

Length: 4.8 to 6.0 mm. 

Discussion.—All 43 individuals on hand are females. I believe that 
the males of this subspecies are mixed with specimens determined as 
v. venustus and that they are nearly or quite indistinguishable from 
v. venustus externally. Because of this, the description is based upon 
the female, and only this sex runs through the key. 

DistrisuTion.—There are 43 specimens in the USNM collec- 
tion, and they are from Manitoba, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, 
Indiana, Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, and Texas. Blatchley 
(1924, p. 53) recorded this subspecies from Florida. 


Cryptocephalus venustus simplex Haldeman 


Figure 88 
Cryptocephalus simpler Haldeman, 1849, p. 249. 


Pronotum: Color much as in v. venustus, but basal markings more 
frequently absent; punctation as in v. venustus. 

Elytra: Creamy yellow to (usually) light orange; female with only a 
black spot on humerus, infrequently with vague indications of vittae 
located as in v. venustus; male with dark vittae as in typical v. venustus. 
Striae as in v. venustus, but less frequently with reduced or confused 
rows. 

Prosternum: Anterior margin as in v. venustus. 

Length: 4.1 to 5.8 mm. 

Discussion.—All but one of the 71 specimens on hand are fe- 
males. The single male is one of an associated couple collected in copula; 
it is identical externally as far as I have been able to determine with 
a male of v. venustus also associated in copula with a female of that sub- 
species. As with v. ornatulus, I believe that the remaining males of this 
subspecies are mixed with specimens determined as v. venustus. The 
male of v. simplex represents the lower range of the extremes in length 
for this subspecies. 

Distripution.—The series of 71 specimens in the U.S. National 
Museum are from New Hampshire, Massachusetts, New York, New 
Jersey, Maryland, Pennsylvania, Virginia, Ohio, Indiana, Wisconsin, 
and Minnesota. Douglass (1924, p. 8) recorded this subspecies from 
Kansas, 


100 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


Cryptocephalus virginiensis, new species 
FIGuRsEs, 18, 109, 140 


General: Body 1.8 times as long as wide; dorsal surface moderately 
shiny, without pubescence; most of ventral surface with short, fine 
pubescence. 

Head: Front and vertex mostly black, with light orange adjacent 
to each eye and above antennal insertions, clypeus and front below 
antennal insertions reddish, labrum orange; with large coarse punctures 
on black area; clypeus with posterior margin distinctly impressed, 
lateral margins distinct, with apex distinctly wider than base. An- 
tennae of male nearly as long as body, orange throughout. 

Pronotum: Predominantly black, with sharply delimited light or- 
ange markings at side and apex; light markings at side narrow at 
base, broader anteriorly; apical markings discontinuous, apically at 
center with a small light spot, this distinct from narrow light margin at 
each side. Punctation dual, smaller punctures small, sparse, larger 
punctures large and coarse, coarsest basally and at sides; surface on 
each side scabrous; median line narrowly free of punctures and finely 
carinate posteriorly. 

Elytra: Ground color light orange, dark markings black, sharply 
delimited. Each elytron with three pair of dark spots as follows (basal 
pair largest) : two basal spots, inner larger, second basal spot extending 
from fifth to eighth stria, not attaining base, ceasing before middle 
of elytra; second pair centered behind middle of elytron, inner larger, 
moderate in size, centered on third stria, located about two-thirds of 
way back, lateral spot small, centered at about middle of eighth inter- 
val; apical spots both moderate, one centered before apex of third 
stria, other before apex of seventh stria. Each elytron with eight rows 
of large, pigmented, somewhat irregular punctures, these rather sparse, 
punctures on light areas smaller than others; fifth, sixth, and seventh 
rows confused; rows distinctly finer at elytral apex; inner and outer 
rows distinct to apex, not clearly meeting. 

Ventral surface: Ventral surface and pygidium black; median line 
of prosternum light orange; legs reddish orange. Anterior margin of 
prosternum in male distinctly produced ventrally into a rather pointed 
lobe; pygidium with very large, coarse punctures. 

Length: 5.0 mm. 

Typrp pata.—The male holotype is from Cape Henry, Virginia, and 
was taken on July 20, 1927, by Aug. Busck; it bears the USNM type 
number 69244. 

Discusston.—The species is most similar to cupressi but is easily 
distinguished from it. The pronotal disk of cwpressi bears four longi- 
tudinal dark bands; that of virginiensis is entirely black. The elytral 
patterns of dark markings of these two species are nearly identical. 




















CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO LO] 


Figures 2-18.—Elytral apices, posterior view; pronota in lateral and dorsal views: 2; 
C. dorsatus, new species, male; 3, C. implacidus, new species, female; 4, C. bivius New: 
female; 5, C. maccus, new species, male paratype; 6, C. amatus fractilineatus, new sub- 
species, male holotype; 7, C. amatus apicedens Fall, female; 8, C. schretbersit Suftrian, 


female; 9, C. merus Fall, female; 10, C. trivittatus Olivier, female; 11, C. cune 


12, C. castaneus Leconte, female; 13, C. binotatus, new species, male pat 






Schaeffer, female; 15, C. leucomelas leucomelas Suffrian, female; 16, C.c 
Say, female; 17, C. egregius Schaeffer, female; 18, C. virginiensi. 





w species, Mm 





013—144—68 8 





102 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 





77 


Ficures 19-33.—Left elytra, dorsal views: 19, C. trizonatus Suffrian, female; 20, C. mucoreus 
Leconte, male; 21, C. basalis Suffrian, female; 22, C. quadruplex Newman, female; 23, 
C. quadruplex Newman, male; 24 C. pubicollis Linell, male; 25; C. pinicola Schaeffer, 
female; 26, C. binominis binominis, Newman, female; 27 C. binominis rufibasis Schaeffer, 
female; 28, C. multisignatus Schaeffer, male; 29, C. notatus notatus Fab., male; 30, C. notatus 
quadrimaculatus Say, female; 31, C. notatus sellatus Schaeffer, female; 32, C. pubiventris 
Schaeffer, female; 33, C. notatus fulvipennis Haldeman, male. 





103 


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CRYPTOCEPHALUS 








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104 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 | 





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Ficures 50-64.—Left elytra, dorsal views: 50, C. trivittatus Olivier, female; 51, C. cuneatus 
Fall, male; 52, C. guttulatellus Schaeffer, female; 53, C. guttulatus Olivier, female; 54 C. 
duryt Schaeffer, female; 55, C. cupressi Schaeffer, female; 56, C. castaneus Leconte, female; 
57, C. castaneus Leconte, female; 58, C. leucomelas leucomelas Suffrian, female; 59, C. 
leucomelas vitticollis Leconte, female; 60, C. egregius Schaeffer, female; 61, C. texanus 
Schaeffer, female; 62, C. bivius Newman, female, 63, C. snowi Schaeffer, female; 64, 
C. cribripennis Leconte, female. 





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106 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


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Ficures 80-93.—Left elytra, dorsal views: 80, C. brunneovittatus Schaeffer, female; 81, C. 
merus Fall, female; 82, C. badius Suffrian, female; 83, C. cowaniae Schaeffer, female; 84, | 
C. venustus cinctipennis Randall, male; 85, C. venustus hamatus Melsheimer, male; 86, C. | 
venustus venustus Fab., female; 87, C. venustus ornatulus Clavareau, female; 88, C. venustus 
simplex Haldeman, female; 89, C. cerinus nevadensis B. E. White, female holotype; 90, C. 
confluentus confluentus Say, male; 91, C. spurcus spurcus Leconte, female; 92, C. spurcus 
vandyke1 White, female; 93, C. cerinus cerinus B. E. White, female 





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CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 109 














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Ficures 102-105.—Adults, dorsal views: 102, C. contextus, new species, type; 
103, C. leucomelas trisignatus, new subspecies, female holotype; 104, C 
species, female holotype; 105, C. maccus, new s} ecies, male holotyre. 


110 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


asset 


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Ficures 106-108.—Adults, dorsal views: 106, C. Junatus, new species, male holotype; 
107, C. obsoletus indistinctus, new subspecies, male holotype; 108, C. pseudomaccus, new 


species, male holotype. 





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Ficures 109-111. 
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1 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 














18 


Ficures 112-119.—Cleared male genitalia, dorsal and lateral views of each: 112, C. binotatus, 
new species, allotype; 113 C. bivius Newman, Tampa, Florida; 114, C. astralosus, new 
species, holotype; 115, C. alternans jungovittatus, new subspecies, holotype; 116, C. amatus 
fractilineatus, new subspecies, holotype; 117, C. calidus Suffrian, Medina, North Dak.; 
118, C. brunneovittatus Schaeffer, Padre Isl., Texas; 119, C. atrofasciatus Jacoby, Williams, 
Arizona. 





CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 


PATH 





124 125 





Schaeffer, Brownsville, Texas; 121, C. confluentus confluentus Say, Mt. Hat 
ifornia; 122, C. cupresst Schaeffer, paratype, New Orleans, Louisiana; 125, 
decrescens, new subspecies, holotype; 124, C. cowaniae Schaeffer, paratype, 











Ficures 120-126.—Cleared male genitalia, dorsal and lateral views of each: 120, C. dur 


Arizona; 125, C. disruptus, new species, holotype; 126, C. dorsatus, new species, ho 


113 


_ 


ryt 


ilton, Cal- 





114 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 





134 


Figures 127-134.—Cleared male genitalia, dorsal and lateral views of each: 127, C. leu- 
comelas leucomelas Suffrian, Morrison, Arizona; 128, C. lunatus, new species, holotype; 
129, C. maccus, new species, holotype; 130, C. guttulatus Olivier, W. Springfield, Massa- 
chusetts; 131, C. mucoreus Leconte, Kentucky; 132, C. pseudomaccus, new species, holo- 
type; 133, C. notatus fulvipennis Haldeman, Capron, Florida; 134, C. obsoletus obsoletus 
Germar, Mt. Pleasant, South Carolina. 





CRYPTOCEPHALUS IN AMERICA NORTH OF MEXICO 115 


/ 





440 


Ficures 135-140.—Cleared male genitalia, dorsal and lateral views of each: 135, C. spurcus 
spurcus Leconte, San Diego, California; 136, C. vapidus, new species, holotype; 137, 
C. triundulatus, new species, holotype; 138, C. simulans conjungens Schaeffer, E] Paso, 
Texas; 139, C. venustus venustus Fab., Branchville to Beltsville, Maryland; 140, C. vir- 
giniensis, new species, holotype. 























Synoptic List of Species 


albicans Haldeman 
alternans jungovittatus, new subspecies 
amatus amatus Haldeman 
amatus apicedens Fall 
amatus fraclilineatus, new subspecies 
arizonensis arizonensis Schaeffer 
astralosus, new species 
atrofasciatus Jacoby 
aulicus Haldeman 
badius Suffrian 
basalis Suffrian 
binominis binominis Newman 
binominis rufibasis Schaeffer 
binotatus, new species 
bispinus Suffrian 
bwius Newman 
brunneovittatus Schaeffer 
calidus Suffrian 

carinatus Leconte 
castaneus Leconte 
cerinus cerinus B. EK. White 
cerinus nevadensis B. KE. White 
confluentus confluentus Say 


confluentus melanoscelus, new subspecies 


contextus, new species 
cowaniae Schaeffer 
cribripennis Leconte 
cuneatus Fall 
cupresst Schaeffer 
defectus Leconte 

nigrovittatus Jacoby 
disrupius, new species 
dorsatus, new species 
duryt Schaeffer 
egregius Schaeffer 
fulguratus Leconte 
gibbicollis gibbicollis Haldeman 
gibbicollis decrescens, new subspecies 
guitulatellus Schaeffer 

quatuordecimpustulatus Schaeffer 
guttulatus Olivier 

lautus Newman 
implacidus, new species 
incertus Olivier 

lineolatus Haldeman 
ensertus Haldeman 

ellipsoidalis Casey 


313-144—68——_9 


lateritius Newman 
leucomelas leucomelas Suffrian 
leucomelas trisignatus, new subspecies 
leucomelas vitticollis Leconte 
lunatus, new species 
luteolus Newman 
sanfordi Blatchley 
sanfordensis Blatchley 
maccus, new species 
merus Fall 
mucoreus Leconte 
multisignatus Schaeffer 
mutabilis Melsheimer 
discoideus Suffrian 
dispersus Haldeman 
nanus Fab. 
notatus notatus Fab. 
notatus fulvipennis Haldeman 
notatus quadrimaculatus Say 
notatus sellatus Schaeffer 
obsoletus obsoletus Germar 
ornatus Suffrian 
obsoletus indistinctus, new subspecies 
ochraceus Fall 
pallidicinctus Fall 
pinicola Schaeffer 
pseudomaccus, new species 
pubicollis Linell 
pubwentris Schaeffer 
pumilus Haldeman 
pseudolus Suffrian 
quadruplex Newman 
quadriguttulus Suffrian 
quercus Schaeffer 
sanquinicollis sanquinicollis Suffrian 
sanquinicollis nigerrimus Crotch 
schreibersii Suffrian 
rugicollis Haldeman 
simulans simulans Schaeffer 
simulans conjungens Schaeffer 
simulans eluticollis Schaeffer 
snowt Schaeffer 
spurcus spurcus Leconte 
spurcus vandyket B. E. White 
striatulus Leconte 
texanus Schaeffer 


118 U.S. NATIONAL MUSEUM BULLETIN 290 


tinctus Leconte 

fasciatus Say 
triundulatus, new species 
trivitiatus Olivier 

lizus Newman 

vittatus Haldeman 
trizonatus Suffrian 
tricinctus Suffrian 
umbonatus Schaeffer 


vapidus, new species 

venustus venustus Fab. 
flaccidus Suffrian 

venuslus cinctipennis Randall 

venustus hamatus Melsheimer 

venustus ornatulus Clavareau 
ornatus Fab. 

venustus simplex Haldeman 

virginiensis, new species 











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1877a. Descriptions of new genera and species of phytophagous beetles 
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1877b. Descriptions of new genera and species of Cryptocephalidae. 
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1932. Coleoptera of Washington: Chrysomelidae. Univ. Washington 
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Buake, D. H. 
1931. Revision of the species of beetles of the genus Trirhabda north of 
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BuatTcHey, W. S. 


1913. On some apparently new Coleoptera from Indiana and Florida. 
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Cuervro.tat, A. 
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1913. Coleopterorum Catalogus, pars 53. Berlin, W. Junk, pp. 1-278. 
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Fasricivus, J. C. 


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1824. Insectorum species novae aut minus cognitae... Halae, pp. 1-624. 
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Index of Specific and Subspecific Names 


abruptus, 44 
albicans, 26 
alternans, 26 
amatus, 28 
apicedens, 29 
arizonensis, 30 
astralosus, 31 
atrofasciatus, 32 
aulicus, 33 
austerus, 56 
badius, 33 
basalis, 34 
binominis, 34 
binotatus, 36 
bispinus, 37 
bivius, 38 
brunneovittatus, 39 
calidus, 40 
carinatus, 40 
castaneus, 41 
catoxantha, 25 
cerinus, 42 
cinctipennis, 97 
confluens, 44 
confluentus, 44 
conjungens, 85 
consors, 25 
contextus, 46 
cowaniae, 47 
cribripennis, 48 
cuneatus, 49 
cupressi, 50 
decemplagiatus, 47 
decrescens, 57 
defectus, 51 
discoideus, 70 
dispersus, 70 
disruptus, 52 
dorsatus, 53 
duryi, 54 
egregius, 54 
ellipsoidalis, 61 
eluticollis, 86 
emiliae, 24 
exaratus, 25 


fasciatus, 91 
flaccidus, 96 
flavicollis, 24 
flaviventris, 24 
forreri, 86 
fractilineatus, 30 
fulguratus, 55 
fulvipennis, 73 
fulvus, 24 
gibbicollis, 56 
guatemalensis, 63 
guttulatellus, 58 
guttulatus, 59 
haematodes, 24 
hamatus, 98 
hemixanthus, 24 
implacidus, 60 
incertus, 61 
inconspicuous, 43 
indistinctus, 75 
insertus, 61 
irroratus, 49 
jungovittatus, 26 
kocheri, 24 
lateritius, 62, 91 
lautus, 59 
leucomelas, 63 
lineolatus, 61 
lixus, 93 
lobatus, 24 
loreyi, 24 
lunatus, 65 
luteolus, 66 
maccus, 67 
macrodactylus, 24 
maculipennis, 86 
melanoscelus, 45 
merus, 68 
militaris, 80 
mucoreus, 69 
multisignatus, 70 
mutabilis, 70 
nanus, 71 
nevadensis, 43 
nigerrimus, 84 
123 


124 


nigrovittatus, 51 
notatus, 72 
obscuripennis, 96 
obsoletus, 74 
ocellatus, 58 
ochraceus, 76 
ornatulus, 98 
ornatus, 74, 98 
pallidicinctus, 76 
patheticus, 47 
pini, 24 

pinicola, 77 
pseudolus, 80 
pseudomaccus, 78 
pubicollis, 79 
pubiventris, 79 
pumilus, 80 
quadriguttulus, 81 
quadrimaculatus, 73 
quadruplex, 81 
quatuordecimpustulatus, 58 
quercus, 82 
rhombeus, 59 
rimosus, 56 

roei, 24 

rufibasis, 35 
rugicollis, 24, 84 
sahlbergi, 24 
sandfordi, 51, 66 
sanfordensis, 51, 66 
sanguinicollis, 83 


INDEX 


schrammeli, 31 
schreibersii, 84 
sellatus, 73 
semimarginatus, 89 
sericea, 24 
simplex, 99 
simulans, 85 
smithi, 80 
snowi, 87 
sordidus, 32 
speciosus, 24 
spurcus, 87 
striatulus, 89 
subtilis, 58 
taeniata, 69 
tesseratus, 58, 59 
testudineus, 59 
texanus, 90 
tinctus, 91 
tricinctus, 93 
trisignatus, 64 
triundulatus, 91 
trivittatus, 93 
trizonatus, 93 
umbonatus, 94 
vandykei, 88 
vapidus, 95 
venustus, 96 
virginiensis, 100 
vittatus, 93 
vitticollis, 65 


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